……………………..Limits are for governments.

Principles of Zoroastrianism: Usefulness

Persian Zoroastrian relief

“Ahura Mazda, indeed, does not allow us to waste anything of value that we may have, not even so much as an Asperena’s weight of thread, not even so much as a maid lets fall in spinning.”

~Max Muller’s Sacred Books of the East

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Comment: The parallels between the teachings of the New Testament and the teachings of Zoroaster are worthy of study. Since excellent translations into English of the primary texts are available, it is possible to compare the two and make modest progress understanding the similarities of the principles and the most basic teachings, without a deep knowledge of the original languages.

Zoroaster’s teachings are written in Gathic Avestan, a language whose only existing texts are the Gathas of Zoroaster himself. Mary Boyce assigns an early date for the life of Zoroaster (c. 1400-1200 BC) based on the similarity of the Gathic Avestan language to the more ancient Vedic writings. He lived in present-day Iran.

In this parallel passage from the New Testament, there is a gathering of people numbering more than 5,000 on a hill in Judea, or modern-day Israel. They are mainly curious about the miracles, and they have also listened to Yeshua teach. He expresses his desire to feed the people who attended his teaching.

[Andrew] said to Him,“There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two small fish, but what are they among so many?”

Then Yeshua said, “Make the people sit down.” Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. And Yeshua took the loaves, and when he had given thanks he distributed them to the disciples, and the disciples to those sitting down; and likewise of the fish, as much as they wanted. 

So when they were filled, he said to his disciples, “Gather up the fragments that remain, so that nothing is lost.” Therefore they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves which were left over by those who had eaten. 

~Yohannan 6

These passages, one from the Zand Avesta and the other from the New Testament, are clearly both teaching that uses can be found even for small and easily overlooked items.

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15 responses

  1. Introduction to Zoroastrianism
    (http://zant.org/about/introduction-to-zoroastrianism/)

    History

    The origins of the Zarathushti faith (also known as Zoroastrianism or Zarathushtrianism) are lost in antiquity, but it has left a timeless legacy to world religious thought that is as relevant today as when it was revealed over 3 millennia ago.

    Asho Zarathushtra (Zoroaster to the Greeks), prophet of the world’s oldest revealed religion, lived in remote antiquity, sometime around the dawn of the Iranian bronze age, circa 1,800 – 1,100 BCE. His place of birth was in the ancient land of Airyana Vaeja in Central Asia, possibly somewhere around the Aral Sea. In his thirtieth year, Asho (righteous) Zarathushtra received the revelation and started on his mission to bring His message to mankind.

    One of Zarathushtra’s first disciples was King Vistaspa, ruler of Bactria. Thereafter, the religion spread far and wide. For a thousand years (559 BCE to 651 CE) it was the dominant religion during three mighty Persian empires that stretched west towards Rome and Greece, east into India, north into Russia and south into Egypt, with followers in the millions.

    It was the State religion of the Persian Achaemenian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 559 BCE, but suffered a setback with the conquest of Persia in 334 BCE by Alexander of Macedonia, when the magnificent Persepolis, seat of the Persian empire, was destroyed, libraries and religious texts burned, and the treasury plundered.

    The Persian Empire of the Parthians (250 BCE to 227 CE) witnessed the birth of Christ and the rise of Christianity. The Zarathushti religion was rejuvenated as the Imperial religion of the Sasanian Persian Empire (226 CE to 651 CE) but reeled once again with the advent of Islam. After a crucial battle in 641 CE with the Arabs, sovereignty passed into the hands of the Islamic caliphs.

    Over the ensuing dispiriting years, a large number of Zarathushtis accepted Islam, some continued to practice their faith under oppressive conditions in Persia, while a few fled in sailing vessels, landing on the western shores of India in the 10th century, and given refuge by the native Hindu ruler. Their descendants, the Parsis, still keep their faith alive in India.

    Zoroastrians in Iran

    For centuries after the Arab invasion in 641 CE, Zoroastrians (or Zarathushtis) in Iran practiced their faith in quiet seclusion, in the face of extreme persecution. As opportunities presented them- selves in the 20th century, they moved from the rural areas towards business, the professions and industry. Zoroastrian entrepreneurs were the first to introduce English and sports in schools; modernize irrigation and agriculture; set up steel, aluminum and plastic factories; promote a small scale automobile industry; start large scale construction projects; and endow hospitals and schools. In less than a century, Zoroastrians excelled in all walks of life – government, business, industry, arts and sciences.

    Zoroastrians in India – The Parsis

    Despite having lived in India for over a thousand years, the Parsis have maintained their religious identity, primarily because they did not proselytize. Over the centuries they have assimilated three separate cultures – the ancient Persian, the Indian and the Western. A miniscule minority in India (less than .01% of the population), the Parsis have influenced the country well out of proportion to their numbers. Enterprising, highly literate and reputed for their honesty, they occupy a position of distinction in the business community. Under British rule in the 19th century, the Parsis became the earliest Indian industrialists and built the first great Indian industrial projects – ship building, aviation, steel, textiles, chemicals, nuclear energy, and have excelled in the arts and sciences. Noted for their integrity, philanthropy and pioneering spirit, they have founded hospitals, schools and other institutions, liberally extending their philanthropy beyond their own community.

    Present Day Zoroastrians

    The number of Zoroastrians in the world today is about 200,000, with the highest concentrations in the ‘homelands’ of Iran (24,000 – 90,000) and India (70,000). In the past half century, Zarathushtis have emigrated around the world, seeking higher education and better opportunities. Wherever they have settled – in USA (11,000), Canada (6,000), Great Britain (5,000), Australia and New Zealand (3,500), Persian Gulf (2,200), Pakistan (2,200), Europe (1,000), the Far East (400) and elsewhere – Zoroastrians have prospered in business and the professions and served well the countries of their adoption. Possibly, the most notable Zarathushtis in the west today are Maestro Zubin Mehta and rock star Freddie Mercury. Enterprising immigrants continue to bring with them their skills and talents, their willingness to work and determination to succeed. They also bring their faith, culture, customs, language and arts – the legacy of a centuries-old tradition that fits surprisingly well into the modern-day world.

    Looking to the Future

    The survival of the Zoroastrian religion over 3,500 years, is remarkable when one considers the devastations it has suffered in conquests, destruction of scriptures, annihilation of priests, persecution of believers and forced conversions, and more recent doctrinal disputes, threat of declining numbers and cultural and religious assimilation. This is compounded by the fact that Zoroastrianism is traditionally a non-proselytizing faith.

    But the religion is not ready to be relegated to the history books just yet. It is perhaps its core beliefs that impel its followers to excel in all areas of human endeavor and contribute for the benefit of humankind. There has been a strong awakening in recent years. In North America, there are now eight Zoroastrian temples, twenty-four associations and one North America federation (FEZANA), providing a strong communal infrastructure. Zoroastrian presence is increasingly evident in the interfaith arena, helping to restore the religion to its rightful place as a venerable and living member of the world’s religious family.

    Despite the vicissitudes of time and history, the essence of Zarathushtra’s timeless and universal message has been preserved and perpetuated, as new generations recognize the remarkable relevance of this ancient faith in today’s world.

    The Zoroastrian Ethic

    Zarathushtra preached the monotheistic religion of the one supreme God, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord). His message is a positive, life-affirming one, which demands not so much belief, as reason and action on the part of every individual. His was not a prescriptive ethic, based on obedience, fear or love, but rather, an ethic of personal responsibility. Zarathushtra asked his listeners to think with a clear mind, and choose a life of intelligent reflection and active benevolence.

    A Zoroastrian is taught to lead an industrious, honest and charitable life. There is no place for asceticism. The generation of wealth, is part of the ethos, as long as it is achieved honestly, and used for good and charitable purposes. The quintessences of his teachings are embodied in the triad Humata (Good Thoughts), Hukhta (Good Words) and Huvarshta (Good Deeds). The loftiest ideal for man is to emulate the Amesha Spentas or attributes of Ahura Mazda:

    Vohu Manah is the Good Mind. Man must think for himself before he can believe. He has the freedom to choose between good and evil, and the responsibility to reap the consequences.
    Asha Vahishta is the Divine Law – It embodies Righteousness, Truth, Wisdom, Justice and Progress. Every Zarathushti strives to follow the Path of Asha in its deepest spiritual sense.
    Kshathra Vairya is Divine Strength and Service, leading to the ideal society.
    Spenta Armaiti, the Benevolent Spirit, is Ahura Mazda’s Purity and Devotion.
    Haurvatat (Progression and Perfection) and Ameratat (Immortality and Everlasting Bliss) are the twin rewards of a righteous life.

    Zoroastrian View of the World

    The Fravahar (Farohar or Fravashi) symbolizes the “Divinity within Humanity,” the essence of God that dwells in every human being and in all of Creation (Persepolis, c. 500 BCE)

    Zarathushtra presents a view of the world in which Ahura Mazda originally creates an ideal existence in accordance with the Law of Asha. As the world progresses there is conflict between the forces of Good (Spenta Mainyu) and Evil (Anghra Mainyu). In this cosmic drama, man is not a bystander, but rather, the prime agent through whose actions the ultimate triumph of good over evil is assured. Ahura Mazda gives man not only the freedom to choose between good and evil, but also the responsibility to actively promote good and vanquish evil. Through the collective good acts of humanity, the world evolves towards the final resurrection (Frashokereti), when all will be in a state of perfection (Haurvatat) and everlasting bliss (Ameratat).

    Stewardship of Nature

    Harmony between man and nature, respect for all of Creation – Fire, Sun, Earth and Water, and promoting a mutually beneficial existence with these elements, is central to Zoroastrian thought, placing this ancient religion well ahead of its time.

    Sacred Texts

    The corpus of Zoroastrian sacred literature is known as the Avesta, written in the ancient Avestan language. It comprises of: the Yasna, the central ritual of worship, within which are preserved the Gathas – divinely inspired and revealed poetry composed by the prophet himself; the Visperad (minor liturgical works); the Vendidad (priestly code of protection); and the Khordeh Avesta (collection of prayers for the laity including the daily Kushti prayers, Niyayesh and Yasht devotional invocations and Nirang incantations).

    The Role of Fire

    Zoroastrian rituals and prayers are solemnized in the presence of a Fire, which is scrupulously tended with sandalwood and frankincense and kept burning in a silver urn in the inner sanctum of every Zoroastrian ‘fire-temple’ also called a ‘Darbe Mehr’ (house of divine light). Fire is revered as a visible symbol of the Inner Light, the divine spark, that burns in each and every heart; a physical representation of the Illumined Mind, Enlightenment and Truth. It is important to note that Zoroastrians do not “worship fire,” as the religion denounces the worship of any idols or deities.

    Navjote or Sedreh-Pushi (Initiation) Ceremony

    A child is officially initiated into the Zoroastrian faith with the Navjote ceremony, at which time he or she is invested with the sacred Sudreh and Kushti. The Sudreh is an undershirt of white muslin with a symbolic pocket in front reminding the wearer to fill it every day with Good Thoughts. Good Words and Good Deeds. The Kushti, a woolen cord, signifies that the wearer has girded him or herself to fight evil. The child henceforth pledges to steadfastly follow the teachings of Zarathushtra, and to reaffirm his/her faith with the Kushti ritual every day.

    The Marriage Ceremony

    Marriage is a pious duty, a religious sacrament, a holy union of two souls, and not just a social or legal contract. The marriage pact, based on sharing, devotion, faithfulness and self-sacrifice, is considered irrevocable. A wedding is a time of great rejoicing, with feasting and dancing in the company of family and friends. At the ceremony, the priests recite passages from the Avesta, offering affirmations, admonitions and benedictions, while showering the couple with rice and rose petals.

    Death and the Funeral Ceremony

    Death is viewed as a transformation, a time of passing of the spiritual elements from the physical body. It is one’s soul that chooses between good and evil in this life; and it is the soul that is responsible for these actions and gets rewarded (in heaven) or retribution (in hell) after death. Ultimately, Evil shall be vanquished by Good, and all souls will be raised in a blissful state, (Frashokereti). Upon death, extensive prayers and rituals are performed, to ensure a safe passage of the soul into the spiritual realm.

    Zarathushtra and the Greeks

    The Greeks, who studied the philosophy of the Persian prophet, dating him “5,000 years before the Siege of Troy” [Plutarch], mistranslated his name as ‘Zoroaster’. His doctrine is mentioned by Greek writers Plato, Socrates and Aristotle, who studied under the Magi (Zarathushti priests) of their times. During the Achaemenian Persian period, a number of books circulated through the Greek world in the name of Zoroaster to lend them authority. The long saga of the wars between the Greeks and the Persians is recorded in Herodotus’ History (5th century BCE).

    Zarathushtra and the Romans

    In Hellenistic and Roman times the image of Persia was a land of mystery, wisdom and learning. Its religious teachings appealed to the conquering Roman soldiers, who then transferred it across the empire in the form of Mithraism, an offshoot of Zoroastrianism. Mithraism flourished in the Parthian period, around the same time as Christianity. It rapidly spread as far west as England and as far east as India, until it succumbed to the rise of Christianity in the 4th century CE. Hundreds of Mithraic temples have been discovered across Europe, the latest one unearthed by construction workers in London in the 1970s.

    Interactions with Judaism and Christianity

    Zarathushti ideas have played a vital role in the development of western religious thought. Some theological concepts shared by Zoroastrianism with Judaism and Christianity are:

    Belief in one supreme and loving God.
    Heaven and Hell, and individual judgment.
    Ultimate triumph of Good over Evil.
    Strict moral and ethical code.
    The Messiah to come for the final restoration.
    The concepts of resurrection, final judgment and life everlasting.
    The words ‘satan’, ‘paradise’ and ‘amen’ are of Zoroastrian origin.

    The interchange of Zoroastrian thought with Judeo-Christian ideology first took place when Cyrus the Great defeated the Assyrians and released the Jews from Babylonian captivity. They heralded Cyrus as their Messiah, as prophesied in the Bible, [Isaiah 44:28 and 45:1-31]. The Old Testament is replete with references to the Persian emperors Darius, Cyrus and Xerxes.

    The commemoration of December 25th as the birthday of Christ has its origins in early Mithraic observances. This was the date of a Roman festival to celebrate natalis solis invicti, the “birthday of the unconquered Sun,” which, following the winter solstice, once again begins to show an increase in light. Around 336 CE, the church in Rome established the commemoration of the birthday of Christ on this same date.

    Zoroastrians had a belief in the coming of a savior, born of a virgin mother, who would bring the revelation from God. It is of interest to note that the Three Wise Men (magi) who heralded the infant Christ were Zoroastrian priests. To this day, frankincense and myrrh are offered at the altars of Zoroastrian fire temples.

    Dr. Mary Boyce [Zoroastrians, 1979] writes: “So it was out of a Judaism enriched by five centuries of contact with Zoroastrianism, that Christianity arose in the Parthian period, a new religion with roots thus in two ancient faiths, one Semitic, the other Persian. Doctrines taught perhaps a millennium and a half earlier by Zoroaster began in this way to reach fresh hearers.”

    Interactions with Hinduism

    Having come from the same Indo-Iranian roots, in remote antiquity, Hindus and ancient Persians shared a common pre-Zarathushti Mazdayasni faith. They practiced reverence for the fire and other natural elements. Both, in the Zarathushti Avesta and in the Hindu Vedic hymns, Mithra (Mitra) is invoked as the Lord of Heavenly Light. The Avesta language of the Gathic scriptures and Sanskrit of the Vedas originated from the same Indo-Iranian philological family and bear some striking similarities. The Zarathushti belief of the world moving towards perfection (haurvatat) and the final renovation (frashokereti) is very well explained in the Upanishads of the Hindus. In the Vedas the word Rita has the same significance (truth, righteousness) as the word Asha in the Avesta. After the Islamic conquest of ancient Persia (Iran) a group of Zarathushtis migrated to India in search of a safe haven to practice their religion without the fear of persecution. After a millennium of living in Hindu India, a number of ceremonial aspects of Hindu culture have been integrated into the Parsi Zarathushti tradition.

    The Hindu concept of reincarnation (one soul entering innumerable different bodies) and Zarathushti resurrection (the same soul re-uniting with the same body at the end of time) are incompatible. Through detachment and renunciation of this corporeal world or body, the Hindu strives to escape from the cycle of birth, life and death so the soul may be freed to ultimately become one with the Absolute. To a Zarathushti, however, life is to be lived to the fullest in this world. One seeks salvation through an ethic of personal responsibility. Every good thought, word and action of a person furthers, cumulatively, the cosmic goal of moving towards frashokereti.

    – by Rohinton M. Rivetna (1st edition 1983). Edited by FEZANA Publication Committee (2nd edition 2005)
    1 The Legacy of Zarathustra: an Introduction to the Religion, History and Culture of the Zarathushtis (Zoroastrians), Ed. Roshan Rivetna. FEZANA, 2002

    October 14, 2012 at 10:21 pm

  2. The Kusti ritual, performed by Zoroastrian man or woman after washing the hands, and facing the sun.

    http://www.avesta.org/ritual/ritualk.htm

    October 14, 2012 at 10:28 pm

  3. 30 Days of the Zoroastrian Month

    I. Ahura Mazda and His Perfect Attributes

    1. Dadar Hormazd (Ahura Mazda): Lord of Wisdom
    2. Bahman Amaeshaspand (Vohu Mano): Good Mind
    3. Ardibehesht Amaeshaspand (Asha Vahishta): Truth, Order
    4. Shehrevar Amaeshaspand (Khshathra Vairya): Benevolent Power
    5. Spendarmad Amaeshaspand (Spenta Aramaiti): Devotion
    6. Khordad Amaeshaspand (Haurvatat): Perfection
    7. Amardad Amaeshaspand (Ameretat): Immortality

    II. Aspects of God’s Light

    8. Dae-pa-Adar Dadar: Giver of Fire
    9. Adar Yazad (Athtra): Fire
    10. Avan Ardvi Suraa Anahita: Water
    11. Khorshed Yazad (Hvarey-kshaeta): Sun
    12. Mohor Yazad (Mah or Maongha): Moon
    13. Teshtar Tir Yazad (Tishtriya): Star (Sirius)
    14. Gosh Yazad (Gey-ush Tashan): Life’s Creator, Earth

    III. Moral Ideas – Virtues

    15. Dae-pa-Meher Dadar: Giver of Friendship, Love, Light
    16. Meher Yazad (Mithra): Friendship, Love, Light [Loyalty]
    17. Sarosh Yazad (Sraosha): Prayer, Willing Obedience [Hearkening, and I like the word, “Attunement”]
    18. Rashnu Rasr Yazad: Justice
    19. Farrokh Farvardin: Divinity in Humanity
    20. Behram Yazad (Verethraghna): Triumph
    21. Mino Ram: Divine Joy
    22. Govad Yazad (Huvaata): Wind

    IV. Ideas on Daena (Religion)

    23. Dae-pa-Din Dadar: Giver of Religion
    24. Din Yazad (Daena): Religion [Daena is elsewhere translated as inner self]
    25. Mino Ashishvangh (Ashi-Vanghoi): Blessings, Wealth of Mind and Heart
    26. Ashtad Yazad (Arshtaat): Truth, Justice
    27. Mino Asman: Sky, Immensity of Space
    28. Zamyad Yazad: Earth
    29. Mino Marespand: Holy Words
    30. Mino Aneran: Eternal Light

    WordPress.com
    Current blog avatar zant.org

    October 14, 2012 at 10:32 pm

  4. It is interesting that the Zoroastrian calender features 30-day months, and that Sirius figures prominently, having both a day and a month named after it.

    The later adjustments to the Zoroastrian calender added 5 feasts during the year, one at each mid-season – in fact, there are 3 separate traditions within Zoroastrianism which deal with the problems of a 365.24-day-year. I found the Zoroastrian calender had these adjustments in common with the ancient Egyptian calender:

    “Sirius is also ancient Egypt’s inspiration for one of its first Calendars, a solar one with 12 thirty day months. In the Egyptian Sirius calendar, the year began with the helical rising of Sirius on or near the Summer Solstice (the first day of summer, the longest day of the year, and the day when the noon sun stood highest above the horizon). This “helical rising” is named after the Greek word Helios for Sun.

    The fact that the early Egyptian calendar only had 360 days might be of concern to anyone who notes that in a mere ten years, the calendar (and the harvest, flooding of the Nile, etc) would be roughly 53 days out of sync. Accordingly, at some point, five feast days were added to the end of the year. Interestingly, however, this is considerable evidence to suggest that at the time, the Earth did in fact rotate in 360 days. Then, according to Immanuel Velikovsky, a close encounter by the Earth with Venus resulted in a change in the number of days in the year from 360 to 365.24. At that point of Ages in Chaos, the five feast days were added.”

    Calenders in general do not interest me so much as understanding the time when Zoroaster lived. I think it is very possible, for several reasons which I am not ready to present, that Zoroaster lived before 2000 BC.

    October 16, 2012 at 10:07 pm

  5. This is a good website on world myths, with a lot of strong research, despite occasional rough writing.

    http://www.themystica.com/mythical-folk/info/topics.html

    An interesting sample:

    Jainism

    “The religion of protest in India originating in the sixth century BC. One of its leaders was Jina, the victor. The religion protested against the complicated ritualism and impersonality of Hinduism.

    Among the assertions of Jainism which still exist is the coexistence of two eternal independent categories known as Jiva (animate, living soul” the enjoyer), and Ajiva (inanimate, non living object: the enjoyed).

    The Jains strongly believe in karma. They contend actions of mind, speech and body produce subtle infra-atomic particles of matter which cause bondage of the individual soul. In order to avoid this bondage or entrapment the person must refrain from violence in order not to bring about suffering in life. One attains salvation by practicing the three “jewels”: of the right faith, the right cognition and the right conduct….

    Yatis (ascetics) attain Nirvana with the five vows, panca-mahavrata: ahimsa, never to inflict injury on any creature; satya, to always be truthful; asteya, never to steal; brahmacarya, to practice sexual restraint; and aparig-raha, to give up worldly goods. These vows help to promote self-mastery.”

    October 18, 2012 at 6:52 pm

  6. An interesting post and ensuing discussion between commenters here:
    http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1742032/posts

    A Free-for-All on Science and Religion
    New York Times ^ | 21 November 2006 | George Johnson

    Posted on Tuesday, November 21, 2006 5:31:54 AM by shrinkermd

    “Maybe the pivotal moment came when Steven Weinberg, a Nobel laureate in physics, warned that “the world needs to wake up from its long nightmare of religious belief,” or when a Nobelist in chemistry, Sir Harold Kroto, called for the John Templeton Foundation to give its next $1.5 million prize for “progress in spiritual discoveries” to an atheist — Richard Dawkins, the Oxford evolutionary biologist whose book “The God Delusion” is a national best-seller.

    Or perhaps the turning point occurred at a more solemn moment, when Neil deGrasse Tyson, director of the Hayden Planetarium in New York City and an adviser to the Bush administration on space exploration, hushed the audience with heartbreaking photographs of newborns misshapen by birth defects — testimony, he suggested, that blind nature, not an intelligent overseer, is in control.

    Somewhere along the way, a forum this month at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., which might have been one more polite dialogue between science and religion, began to resemble the founding convention for a political party built on a single plank: in a world dangerously charged with ideology, science needs to take on an evangelical role, vying with religion as teller of the greatest story ever told.” ~shrinkermd

    November 1, 2012 at 3:25 pm

  7. Here is a historic example of State action to erase the traditions, culture and religion of the people.

    “Before 1949, peasants had farmed their own small pockets of land, and observed traditional practices—festivals, banquets, and paying homage to ancestors.[1] It was realized that Mao’s policy of using a state monopoly on agriculture to finance industrialization would be unpopular with the peasants and therefore it was proposed that the peasants should be brought under Party control by the establishment of agricultural collectives which would also facilitate the sharing of tools and draft animals.” Continue reading “The Great Leap Forward” on Wikipedia

    November 14, 2012 at 12:23 pm

  8. Here is a beautiful recording of Yasna 31 being sung:

    And here are more of the Yasnas on Vimeo:
    http://vimeo.com/zartosht/videos/page:2/sort:date

    December 3, 2012 at 2:26 pm

  9. Menog-i Khrad (“The Spirit of Wisdom”) Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 24, Oxford University Press, 1885. This popular religious text was probably compiled in the 6th century AD. (Boyce, History I, p. 128.) It contains summaries of much more ancient material. CONTENTS: Chapter 1. Introducing the sage and the spirit of wisdom Chapter 2. How to preserve both body and soul, including the fate of the soul after death, whether righteous or wicked Chapter 3. What liberality and truth, gratitude and wisdom, mindfulness and contentment are good for Chapter 4. The nine chief good works, divided into seven classes Chapter 5. The ten happiest lands Chapter 6. The ten unhappiest lands Chapter 7. The four grades of heaven and hell, with the neutral region between them, and the fate of the souls in each Chapter 8. How Ohrmazd created the universe, and Ahriman corrupted it for 9000 years. The evil influence of the seven planets, the good influence of the twelve signs of the zodiac, and how far the good and evil can counteract each other Chapter 9. The impossibility of going from region to region, the substance of the sky, and the mingling of the water in the earth Chapter 10. The impossibility of peace and affection between Ahriman and Ohrmazd Chapter 11. Wisdom without goodness and skill without wisdom are useless Chapter 12. Worldly treasure is not allotted so truly as spiritual, on account of Ahriman’s chieftains the seven planets; but, after death, every one is judged according to his own deeds Chapter 13. Though animals’ knowledge is instinctive, men obtain theirs only by toil, because Ahriman has concealed the results of good and evil, and formed many false religions; but the only true one is that taught by Zartosht Chapter 14. The best protection, friend, supporter of fame, helper of enjoyment, wealth, and pleasure Chapter 15. The poverty and opulence which are good, and the characteristics of good and bad government Chapter 16. The best food, grain, and fruit. The effects of wine on different tempers, and when drunk in moderation and in excess. Also why silk clothing is better for the body, and cotton for the soul Chapter 17. The pleasure that is worse than unhappiness Chapter 18. Why people disregard the changeableness of worldly things, death, the account of the soul, and hell Chapter 19. Living in fear and falsehood is worse than death Chapter 20. The best and worst conversation for kings Chapter 21. The fate of men who are worldly, scoffing, idle, malicious, lazy, false-hearted, and arrogant Chapter 22. How far worldly wealth can be acquired through exertion Chapter 23. The impossibility of contending with destiny Chapter 24. Providence can over-rule destiny; but rarely does so, because of Ahriman’s evil doings Chapter 25. The poorest of the rich, and the richest of the poor Chapter 26. A blind mind is worse than a blind eye, and an ill-informed is worse than an ill-tempered man Chapter 27. The several advantages resulting from the actions of Gayomard, Hooshang, Tahmurasp, Yim [Jamshed], Azi Zohak, Frasiyav, Faridoon, Manuschihar, Kay Kobad, Sahm, Kay Us, Siyavakhsh, Kay Khosraw, Kay Lohrasp, and Kay Vishtasp Chapter 28. The most forgiving, strongest, swiftest, happiest, and most miserable Chapter 29. What must be most regarded and protected Chapter 30. The worst life and most unforeseeing man Chapter 31. The business of the three classes — priests, warriors, and husbandmen Chapter 32. The business of the fourth class, the artisans Chapter 33. The worst ruler, chieftain, friend, kinsman, wife, child, and country Chapter 34. Ahriman can hardly disturb a wise and contented man Chapter 35. The seven kinds of men who are rich, and the seven who are poor Chapter 36. The thirty sins Chapter 37. The thirty-three good works Chapter 38. Why worldly happiness is not allotted to the worthy who are accepted in heaven Chapter 39. Whose power is most seemly, wisdom most complete, disposition most faithful, speech most proper, goodness least, friendship worst, mental pleasure least, heart most seemly, endurance most approvable, and who is not faithful. What should be kept by every one and no one, and also in conversation. Who cannot give evidence, to whom obedience is due, who must be minded and praised, what must not be unrespected, who is like Ohrmazd, and who like Ahriman Chapter 40. What is coldest, warmest, brightest, darkest, fullest, emptiest, most fruitless, without superfluity, incapable of deprival, cannot be bought, satisfies every one, and satisfies no one. What Ohrmazd desires from men, and what Ahriman does; and what is the end in the worldly and spiritual existences Chapter 41. The mightiest man, most dreadful road, most perplexing account, pleasantest tie, most regrettable work, and most unprofitable gift Chapter 42. The three kinds of man Chapter 43. The spiritual armor and weapons requisite for attaining to heaven and escaping from hell Chapter 44. The arrangement of the sky and earth, flow of the water, and resting-place of the clouds; where the winter demon is most predominant, and the most undisturbed country Chapter 45. How Ahriman deceives, whence is his pleasure, where he has a foundation, whom he haunts, and whence is his food Chapter 46. Ahriman considers no injury complete, unless he seizes the soul Chapter 47. What is better than all wealth, predominant over everything, and from which no one can escape Chapter 48. The dwelling of the understanding, intellect, seed, and wisdom in the body Chapter 49. The duties and motions of the stars, Tishtar, Vanand, Haptoring, the twelve signs of the zodiac, and the rest, the sun and the moon Chapter 50. The opulent person who is fortunate, and the reverse Chapter 51. Why a bad man sometimes succeeds, and a good one fails Chapter 52. How the ceremonies and religion should be considered, and what is requisite for the renunciation of sin Chapter 53. How the homage and glorifying of the sacred beings are to be performed Chapter 54. Why an ignorant man will not learn Chapter 55. Why an ill-natured man is no friend of the good, nor an untalented man of the talented Chapter 56. The uses of mountains and rivers Chapter 57. The many advantages and uses of wisdom Chapter 58. Though an ignorant king is esteemed by man, a wise poor man is more esteemed by the angels Chapter 59. The vices of the four classes — priests, warriors, husbandmen, and artisans Chapter 60. The man most conversant with good and evil Chapter 61. The chiefs of men, women, horses, flying creatures, oxen, wild animals, and grains Chapter 62. Regarding Kangdez, the enclosure formed by Yim [Jamshed], the body of Sahm, the abode of Srosh, the three-legged ass, the Haoma tree, Gopaitoshah, the Kar fish, the griffin bird, and Chinamrosh Chapter 63. The best good work, which requires no trouble CHAPTER 1. Through the name and power and assistance of the creator Ohrmazd, the archangels who are good rulers and good performers, and all the angels of the spiritual and the angels of the worldly existences, by a happy dispensation (dahishn) and well-omened we write the Opinions of the Spirit of Wisdom through the will of the sacred beings. 1. In the name and for the propitiation of the all-benefiting creator Ohrmazd, (2) of all the angels of the spiritual and worldly creations, (3) and of the learning of learnings, the Mazda-worshipping religion, (4) forth from which this, which is such a source of wisdom, is a selector. 5. Through the glory and will of the creator Ohrmazd who is promoting the prosperity of the two existences — (6) and of all the greatly powerful angels, (7) and through the completely calm repose of the sacred beings, the princely, purpose-fulfilling sages, (8) presentations of various novelties for the appropriation of wisdom, (9) through largely acquiring reasoning thought, are most wholesome for the body and soul in the two existences. 10. As in the pure marvel of marvels, the unquestionable and well-betokened good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, by the words of the creator. Ohrmazd, and Zartosht the Spitaman, it is in many places decided, (11) that he, who is the all-good creator, created these creatures through wisdom, (12) and his maintenance of the invisible revolutions is through wisdom; (13) and the imperishable and undisturbed state, in that which is immortality for ever and everlasting, he reserves for himself by means of the most deliberative means of wisdom. 14. For the same reason it is declared, (15) that there was a sage who said, (16) that ‘if this be known, that the religion of the sacred beings (yazdan) is truth, and its law is virtue, and it is desirous of welfare and compassionate as regards the creatures, (17) wherefore are there mostly many sects, many beliefs, and many original evolutions of mankind? 18. And, especially, that which is a sect, law, and belief, causing harm to the property (khel) of the sacred beings, and is not good? 19, 20. And this, too, one has to consider, that, in border to become a chooser in this matter, trouble to be undergone; (21) and it is necessary to become acquainted with this matter, (22) because, in the end, the body is mingled with the dust, and reliance is on the soul. 23. And every one is to undergo trouble for the soul, (24) and is to become acquainted with duty and good works; (25) because that good work which a man does unwittingly is little of a good work, (26) and that sin which a man commits unwittingly amounts to a sin in its origin. 27. And it is declared by the Avesta (28) thus: “Nothing was taken by him by whom the soul was not! taken (29) hitherto, and he takes nothing who does not take the soul (30) henceforward likewise; (31) because the spiritual and worldly existences are such-like as two strongholds, (32) one it is declared certain that they shall capture, and one it is not possible to capture.”‘ 33. After being replete with those good actions of which it is declared certain that it is not possible to capture, (34) and when he surveyed the incitement for this, (35) he started forth (fravafto), in search of wisdom, into the various countries and various districts of this world; (36) and of the many religions and belief of those people who are superior in their wisdom he thought and inquired, and he investigated and came upon their origin. 37. And when he saw that they are so mutually afflicting (hanbeshin) and inimical among one another, (38) he then knew that these religions and beliefs and diverse customs, which are so mutually afflicting among one another in this world, are not worthy to be from the appointment of the sacred beings; (39) because the religion of the sacred beings is truth, and its law is virtue. 40. And through this he became without doubt that, as to whatever is not in this pure religion, there is then doubtfulness for them in everything, (41) and in every cause they see distraction. 42. After that he became more diligent in the inquiry and practice of religion; (43) and he inquired of the high-priests who have become wiser in this religion and more acquainted with the religion, (44) thus: ‘For the maintenance of the body and preservation of the soul what thing is good and more perfect?’ 45. And they spoke, through the statement from revelation, (46) thus: ‘Of the benefit which happens to men wisdom is good; (47) because it is possible to manage the worldly existence through wisdom, (48) and it is possible to provide also the spiritual existence for oneself through the power of wisdom. 49. And this, too, is declared, that Ohrmazd has produced these creatures and creation, which are in the worldly existence, through innate wisdom [asn khrad]; (50) and the management of the worldly and spiritual existences is also through wisdom.’ 51. And when, in that manner, he saw the great advantage and preciousness of wisdom, he became more thankful unto Ohrmazd, the lord, and the archangels of the spirit of wisdom; (52) and he took the spirit of wisdom as a protection. 53. For the spirit of wisdom one is to perform more homage and service than for the remaining archangels. 54. And this, too, he knew, that it is possible to do for oneself every duty and good work and proper action through the power of wisdom; (55) and it is necessary to be diligent for the satisfaction of the spirit of wisdom. 56. And, thenceforward, he became more diligent in performing the ceremonial of the spirit of wisdom. 57. After that the spirit of wisdom, on account of the thoughts and wishes of that sage, displayed his person unto him. 58. And he spoke to him (59) thus: ‘ O friend and glorifier! good from perfect righteousness! (60) seek advancement from me, the spirit of wisdom, (61) that I may become thy guide to the satisfaction of the sacred beings and the good, and to the maintenance of the body in the worldly existence and the preservation of the soul in the spiritual one.’ CHAPTER 2. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How is it possible to seek the maintenance and prosperity of the body without injury of the soul, and the preservation of the soul without injury of the body?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Him who is less than thee consider as an equal, and an equal as a superior, (5) and a greater than him as a chieftain, and a chieftain as a ruler. 6. And among rulers one is to be acquiescent, obedient, and true-speaking; (7) and among accusers [or associates] be submissive, mild, and kindly regardful. 8. ‘Commit no slander; (9) so that infamy and wickedness may not happen unto thee. 10. For it is said (11) that slander is more grievous than witchcraft; (12) and in hell the rush of every fiend [druj] is to the front, but the rush of the fiend of slander, on account of the grievous sinfulness, is to the rear. 13. ‘Form no covetous desire; (14) so that the demon of greediness may not deceive thee (15) and the treasure of the world may not be tasteless to thee, and that of the spirit unperceived. 16. ‘Indulge in no wrathfulness; (17) for a man, when he indulges in wrath, becomes then forgetful of his duty and good works, of prayer and the service of the sacred beings, (18) and sin and crime of every kind occur unto his mind, and until the subsiding of the wrath (19) he is said to be just like Ahriman. 20. ‘Suffer no anxiety; (21) for he who is a sufferer of anxiety becomes regardless of enjoyment of the world and the spirit, (22) and contraction happens to his body and soul. 23. ‘Commit no lustfulness, (24) so that harm and regret may not reach thee from thine own actions. 25. ‘Bear no improper envy; (26) so that thy life may not become tasteless. 27. ‘Commit no sin on account of disgrace; (28) because happiness and adornment, celebrity (khanidih) and dominion, skill and suitability are not through the will and action of men, but through the appointment, destiny, and will of the sacred beings. 29. ‘Practice no sloth; (30) so that the duty and good work, which it is necessary for thee to do, may not remain undone. 31. ‘Choose a wife who is of character; (32) because that one is good who in the end is more respected. 33. ‘Commit no unseasonable chatter; (34) so that grievous distress may not happen unto Hordad and Amurdad, the archangels, through thee. 35. ‘Commit no running about uncovered; (36) so that harm may not come upon thy bipeds and quadrupeds, and ruin upon thy children. 37. ‘Walk not with one boot; (38) so that grievous distress may not happen to thy soul. 39. ‘Perform no discharge of urine (peshar-var) standing on foot; (40) so that thou mayst not become a captive by a habit of the demons, (41) and the demons may not drag thee to hell on account of that sin. 42. ‘Thou shouldst be (yehevunes) diligent and moderate, (43) and eat of thine own regular industry, (44) and provide the share of the sacred beings and the good; (45) and, thus, the practice of this, in thy occupation is the greatest good work. 46. ‘Do not extort from the wealth of others; (47) so that thine own regular industry may not become unheeded. 48. For it is said (49) that: “He who eats anything, not from his own regular industry, but from another, is such-like as one who holds a human head in his hand, and eats human brains.” 50. ‘Thou shouldst be an abstainer from the wives of others; (51) because all these three would become disregarded by thee, alike wealth, alike body, and alike soul. 52. ‘With enemies fight with equity. 53. With a friend proceed with the approval of friends. 54. With a malicious man carry on no conflict, (55) and do not molest him in any way whatever. 56. With a greedy man thou shouldst not be a partner, (57) and do not trust him with the leadership. 58. With a slanderous man do not go to the door of kings. 59. With an ill-famed man form no connection. 60. With an ignorant man thou shouldst not become a confederate and associate. 6I. With a foolish man make no dispute. 62. With a drunken man do not walk on the road. 63. From an ill-natured man take no loan. 64. ‘In thanksgiving unto the sacred beings, and worship, praise, ceremonies, invocation, and performing the learning of knowledge thou shouldst be energetic and life-expending. 65. For it is said (66) that: “In aid of the contingencies (jahishno) among men wisdom is good; (67) in seeking renown and preserving the soul liberality is good; (68) in the advancement of business and justice complete mindfulness is good; (69) and in the statements of those who confess (khustivan), with a bearing on the custom of the law, truth is good. 70. In the progress of business energy is good, (71) for every one to become confident therein steadfastness is good, (72) and for the coming of benefit thereto thankfulness is good. 73. In keeping oneself untroubled (anairang) the discreet speaking which is in the path of truth is good; (74) and in keeping away the disturbance of the destroyer from oneself employment is good. 75. Before rulers and kings discreet speaking is good, and in an assembly good recital; (76) among friends repose and rational friends are good; (77) and with an associate to one’s own deeds the giving of advantage (suko) is good. 78. Among those greater than one (ajas masan) mildness and humility are good, (79) and among those less than one flattery and civility are good. 80. Among doers of deeds speaking of thanks and performance of generosity are good; (81) and among those of the same race the formation of friendship (humanoih) is good. 82. For bodily health moderate eating and keeping the body in action are good; (83) and among the skilled in thanksgiving performance is good. 84. Among chieftains unanimity and seeking advantage are good; (85) among those in unison and servants good behavior and an exhibition of awe are good; (86) and for having little trouble in oneself contentment is good. 87. In chieftainship to understand thoroughly the good in their goodness and the vile in their vileness is good; and to make the vile unseen, through retribution, is good. 88. In every place and time to restrain oneself from sin and to be diligent in meritorious work are good; (89) and every day to consider and keep in remembrance Ohrmazd, as regards creativeness, and Ahriman, as regards destructiveness, is good. 90. And for dishonor not to come unto one a knowledge of oneself is good.” 91. All these are proper and true and of the same description, (92) but occupation and guarding the tongue (pat-huzvanih) above everything. 93. ‘Abstain far from the service of idols and demon-worship. 94. Because it is declared (95) that: “If Kay Khosraw should not have extirpated the idol-temples (aujdes-char) which were on the lake of Chechast, then in these three millenniums of Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshyant — of whom one of them comes separately at the end of each millennium, who arranges again all the affairs of the world, and utterly destroys the breakers of promises and servers of idols who are in the realm — the adversary would have become so much more violent, that it would not have been possible to produce the resurrection and future existence.” 96. ‘In forming a store of good works thou shouldst be diligent, (97) so that it may come to thy assistance among the spirits. 98. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through any happiness of the world; (99) for the happiness of the world is such-like as a cloud that comes on a rainy day, which one does not ward off by any hill. 100. ‘Thou shouldst not be too much arranging the world; (101) for the world-arranging man becomes spirit-destroying. 102. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through much treasure and wealth; (103) for in the end it is necessary for thee to leave all. 104. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through predominance; (105) for in the end it is necessary for thee to become non-predominant. 106. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through respect and reverence; (107) for respectfulness does not assist in the spiritual existence. 108. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through great connections and race; (109) for in the end thy trust is on thine own deeds. 110. ‘Thou shouldst not become presumptuous through life; (111) for death comes upon thee at last, (112) the dog and the bird lacerate the corpse, (113) and the perishable part (sejinako) falls to the ground. 114. During three days and nights the soul sits at the crown of the head of the body. 115. And the fourth day, in the light of dawn with the cooperation of Srosh the righteous, Vae the good, and Warharan the strong, the opposition of Astwihad, Vae the bad, Frazishto the demon, and Nizishto the demon, and the evil-designing action of Eshm, the evil-doer, the impetuous assailant it goes up to the awful, lofty Chinwad bridge, to which every one, righteous and wicked, is coming. 116. And many opponents have watched there, (117) with the desire of evil of Eshm, the impetuous assailant, and of Astwihad who devours creatures of every kind and knows no satiety, (118) and the mediation of Mihr and Srosh and Rashn, (119) and the weighing of Rashn, the just, (120) with the balance of the spirits, which renders no favor (hu-girai) on any side, neither for the righteous nor yet the wicked, neither for the lords nor yet the monarchs. 121. As much as a hair’s breadth it will not turn, and has no partiality; (122) and he who is a lord and monarch it considers equally, in its decision, with him who is the least of mankind. 123. ‘And when a soul of the righteous passes upon that bridge, the width of the bridge becomes as it were a league (parasang), (124) and the righteous soul passes over with the cooperation of Srosh the righteous. 125. And his own deeds of a virtuous kind come to meet him in the form of a maiden, (126) who is handsomer and better than every maiden in the world. 127. ‘And the righteous soul speaks (128) thus: “Who mayst thou be, that a maiden who is handsomer and better than thee was never seen by me in the worldly existence?” 129. ‘In reply that maiden form responds (130) thus: “I am no maiden, but I am thy virtuous deeds, thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, and of good religion! 131. For when thou sawest in the world him who performed demon-worship, then thou hast sat down, and thy performance was the worship of the sacred beings. 132. And when it was seen by thee that there was any one who caused oppression and plunder, and distressed or scorned a good person, and acquired wealth by crime, then thou keptest back from the creatures their own risk of oppression and plunder; (133) the good person was also thought of by thee, and lodging and entertainment provided; and alms were given by thee to him (134) who came forth from near and him, too, who was from afar; and wealth which was due to honesty was acquired by thee. 135. And when thou sawest him who practiced false justice and taking of bribes, and false evidence was given by him, then thou hast sat down, and the recitation of truth and virtue was uttered by thee. 136. I am this of thine, the good thoughts, the good words, and the good deeds which were thought and spoken and done by thee. 137. For when I have become commendable, I am then made altogether more commendable by thee; (138) when I have become precious, I am then made altogether still more precious by thee; (139) and when I have become glorious, I am then made altogether still more glorious by thee.” 140. ‘And when he walks onwards from there, a sweet-scented breeze comes then to meet him, which is more fragrant than all perfume. 141. The soul of the righteous inquires of Srosh (142) thus: “That breeze is this, that never in the world so fragrant a breeze came into contact with me?” 143. ‘Then Srosh, the righteous, replies to that righteous soul (144) thus: “This breeze is from heaven, which is so fragrant.” 145. ‘Afterwards, on his march, the first step is set on the place of good thoughts, the second on that of good words, the third on that of good deeds, (146) and the fourth step reaches up unto the endless light which is all-radiant. 147. And angels and archangels of every description come to meet him, (148) and ask tidings from him (149) thus: “How hast thou come, from that which is a perishable, fearful, and very miserable existence, to this which is an imperishable existence that is undisturbed, thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, and of good religion?” 150. ‘Then Ohrmazd, the lord, speaks (151) thus: “Ask ye from him no tidings; for he has parted from that which was a precious body, and has come by that which is a fearful road. 152. And bring ye unto him the most agreeable of eatables, that which is the mid-spring butter [Maidyozarem roghan], (153) so that he may rest his soul from that bridge of the three nights, unto which he came from Astwihad and the remaining demons; (154) and seat him upon an all-embellished throne.” 155. ‘As it is declared (156) that: “Unto the righteous man and woman, after passing away, they bring food of the most agreeable of eatables — the food of the angels of the spiritual existences — that which is the mid-spring butter; and they seat them down on an all-embellished throne. 157. For ever and everlasting they remain in all glory with the angels of the spiritual existences everlastingly.” 158. ‘And when he who is wicked dies, his soul then rushes about for three days and nights in the vicinity of the head of that wicked one, and sobs (159) thus: “Whither do I go, and now what do I make as a refuge?” 160. And the sin and crime of every kind, that were committed by him in the worldly existence, he sees with his eyes in those three days and nights. 161. The fourth day Vizaresh, the demon, comes and binds the soul of the wicked with the very evil noose; (162) and with the opposition of Srosh, the righteous, he leads it up to the Chinwad bridge. 163. Then Rashn, the just, detects that soul of the wicked through its wickedness. 164. ‘Afterwards, Vizaresh, the demon, takes that soul of the wicked, and mercilessly and maliciously beats and maltreats it. 165. And that soul of the wicked weeps with a loud voice, is fundamentally horrified, implores with many supplicating entreaties, and makes many struggles for life disconnectedly. 166. Whom — when his struggling and supplication are of no avail whatever, and no one comes to his assistance from the divinities (bagan), nor yet from the demons — moreover, Vizaresh, the demon, drags miserably to the inevitable hell. 167. ‘And then a maiden who is not like unto maidens comes to meet him. 168. And that soul of the wicked speaks to that evil maiden (169) thus: “Who mayst thou be, that never in the worldly existence was an evil maiden seen by me, who was viler and more hideous than thee?” 170. ‘And she speaks in reply to him (171) thus: “I am not a maiden, but I am thy deeds, thou monster who art evil-thinking, evil-speaking, evil-doing, and of evil religion! 172. For even when thou sawest him who performed the worship of the sacred beings, still then thou hast sat down, and demon-worship was performed by thee, (173) and the demons and fiends were served. 174. And also when thou sawest him who provided lodging and entertainment, and gave alms, for a good person who came forth from near and him, too, who was from afar, (175) then thou actedst scornfully and disrespectfully to the good person, and gave no alms, and even shut up the door. 176. And when thou sawest him who practiced true justice, took no bribe, gave true evidence, and uttered virtuous recitation, (177) even then thou hast sat down, and false justice was practiced by thee, evidence was given by thee with falsehood, and vicious recitation was uttered by thee. 178. I am this of thine, the evil thoughts, the evil words, and the evil deeds which were thought and spoken and done by thee. 179. For when I have become uncommendable, I am then made altogether still more uncommendable, by thee; (180) when I have become unrespected, I am then made altogether still more unrespected by thee; (181) and when I have sat in an eye-offending position, I am then made altogether still more really eye-offending (chashm-kah-ichtar-ich) by thee.” 182. ‘Afterwards he enters, the first step on the place of evil thoughts, the second on that of evil words, the third step on that of evil deeds, (183) and the fourth step rushes into the presence of the wicked evil spirit and the other demons. 184. And the demons make ridicule and mockery of him (185) thus: “What was thy trouble and complaint, as regards Ohrmazd, the lord, and the archangels, and the fragrant and joyful heaven, when thou approachedst for a sight of Ahriman and the demons and gloomy hell, (186) although we cause thee misery therein and do not pity, and thou shalt see misery of long duration?” 187. ‘And the evil spirit shouts to the demons (188) thus: “Ask ye no tidings from him (189) who is parted from that which was a precious body, and has come on by that which is a very bad road. 190. But bring ye unto him the foulest and vilest of eatables, the food which is nurtured in hell.” 191. ‘They bring the poison and venom of the snake and scorpion and other noxious creatures that are in hell, (192) and give him to eat. 193. And until the resurrection and future existence he must be in hell, in much misery and punishment of various kinds. 194. Especially that it is possible to eat food there only as though by similitude.’ 195. The spirit of innate wisdom spoke to the sage (196) thus: ‘This which was asked by thee, as to the maintenance of the body and concerning the preservation of the soul, is also spoken about by me, and thou art admonished. 197. Be virtuously assiduous about it, and keep it in practice; (198) for this is thy chief way for the maintenance of the body and preservation of the soul.’ CHAPTER 3. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus; ‘Is liberality good, or truth, (3) or gratitude, or wisdom, (4) or complete mindfulness, or contentment?’ 5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus: ‘As to the soul it is liberality, as to all the world it is truth, (7) unto the sacred-beings it is gratitude, as to a man’s self it is wisdom, (8) as to all business it is complete mindfulness, and as to the comfort of the body and the vanquishing of Ahriman and the demons contentment is good.’ CHAPTER 4. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom? thus: Which is a good work that is great and good?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘The greatest good work is liberality, and the second is truth and next-of-kin marriage. 5. The third is keeping the season festivals [Gahambars], and the fourth is celebrating all the religious rites. 6. The fifth is the ceremonial of the sacred beings, and the providing of lodging for traders. 7. The sixth is the wishing of happiness for every one. 8. And the seventh is a kind regard for the good.’ CHAPTER 5. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which land is the happier?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘That is the happier, in which a righteous man, who is true-speaking, makes his abode. 5. The second, in which they make the abode of fires. 6. The third, when oxen and sheep repose upon it. 7. The fourth is uncultivated and uninhabited land when they bring it back to cultivation and habitableness. 8. The fifth, from which they extirpate the burrows of noxious creatures. 9. The sixth, on which exist the ceremonies and coming of the sacred beings, and the sitting of the good. 10. The seventh, when they make populous that which was desolate. 11. The eighth, when from the possession of the bad it comes into the possession of the good. 12. The ninth, when of the produce and yield (beto) which arise from it they provide the share of the sacred beings, the good, and the worthy. 13. And the tenth in which they provide holy-water and ceremonies.’ CHAPTER 6. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which land is the unhappier?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘That land is the more afflicted, in which hell is formed. 5. The second, when they slay in it a righteous man who is innocent. 6. The third, for whose sake the demons and fiends work. 7. The fourth, in which they construct an idol-temple. 8. The fifth, when a wicked man, who is an evil-doer, makes an abode in it. 9. The sixth, when the interment of a corpse is performed below. 10. The seventh, in which a noxious creature has a burrow. 11. The eighth, when from the possession of the good it comes into the possession of the bad. 12. The ninth, when they make desolate that which was populous. 13. And the tenth, in which they make lamentation and weeping.’ CHAPTER 7. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How is heaven, and how many? 3. How are the ever-stationary (hamistagan), and how many? 4. And how is hell, and how many? 5. What is the decision about the righteous in heaven, and from what is their happiness? 6. What are the misery and affliction of the wicked in hell? 7. And what and how is the decision about those who are among the ever-stationary?’ 8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus: ‘Heaven is, first, from the star station unto the moon station; (10) second, from the moon station unto the sun; (11) and, third, from the sun station unto the supreme heaven (garothman), whereon the creator Ohrmazd is seated. 12. Of heaven the first part is that of good thoughts (humato), the second is that of good words (hukhto), and the third is that of good deeds (huvarshto). 13. ‘The righteous in heaven are undecaying and immortal, unalarmed, undistressed, and undisturbed. 14. And, everywhere, they are full of glory, fragrant, and joyful, full of delight and full of happiness. 15. And, at all times, a fragrant breeze and a scent which is like sweet basil come to meet them, which are more pleasant than every pleasure, and more fragrant than every fragrance. 16. For them, also, there is no satiety owing to the existence in heaven. 17. And their sitting and walking, perception and enjoyment are with the angels and archangels and the righteous for ever and everlasting. 18. ‘Regarding the ever-stationary it is declared, that they are from the earth unto the star station; (19) and its affliction for them is then nothing whatever except cold and heat. 20. ‘Of hell the first part is that of evil thoughts (dush-humato), the second is that of evil words (dush-hukhto), and the third is that of evil deeds (dush-huvarshto). 21. With the fourth step the wicked person arrives at that which is the darkest hell; (22) and they lead him forwards to the vicinity of Ahriman, the wicked. 23. And Ahriman and the demons, thereupon, make ridicule and mockery of him (24) thus: “What was thy trouble and complaint, as regards Ohrmazd and the archangels, and the fragrant and joyful heaven, when thou approachedst for a sight of us and gloomy hell, (25) although we cause thee misery therein and do not pity, and thou shalt see misery of long duration?” 26. And, afterwards, they execute punishment and torment of various kinds upon him. 27. ‘There is a place where, as to cold, it is such as that of the coldest frozen snow. 28. There is a place where, as to heat, it is such as that of the hottest and most blazing fire. 29. There is a place where noxious creatures are gnawing them, just as a dog does the bones. 30. There is a place where, as to stench, it is such that they stagger about (bara larzhend) and fall down. 31. And the darkness is always such-like as though it is possible for them to seize upon it with the hand.’ CHAPTER 8. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How and in what manner has Ohrmazd created these creatures and creation? 3. And how and in what manner were the archangels and the spirit of wisdom formed and created by him? 4. And how are the demons and fiends and also the remaining corrupted ones of Ahriman, the wicked, miscreated? 5. How do every good and evil happen which occur to mankind and also the remaining creatures? 6. And is it possible to alter anything which is destined, or not?’ 7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: ‘The creator, Ohrmazd, produced these creatures and creation, the archangels and the spirit of wisdom from that which is his own splendor, and with the blessing of unlimited time (zurvan). 9. For this reason, because unlimited time is undecaying and immortal, painless and hungerless, thirstless and undisturbed; and for ever and everlasting no one is able to seize upon it, or to make it non-predominant as regards his own affairs. 10. ‘And Ahriman, the wicked, miscreated the demons and fiends, and also the remaining corrupted ones, by his own unnatural intercourse. 11. A treaty of nine thousand winters in unlimited time (daman) was also made by him with Ohrmazd; (12) and, until it has become fully completed, no one is able to alter it and to act otherwise. 13. And when the nine thousand years have become completed, Ahriman is quite impotent; (14) and Srosh, the righteous, will smite Eshm, (15) and Mihr and unlimited time and the spirit of justice, who deceives no one in anything, and destiny and divine providence will smite the creatures and creation of Ahriman of every kind, and, in the end, even Azho [i.e. Az], the demon. 16. And every creature and creation of Ohrmazd becomes again as undisturbed as those which were produced and created by him in the beginning. 17. ‘Every good and the reverse which happen to mankind, and also the other creatures, happen through the seven planets and the twelve constellations. 18. And those twelve constellations are such as in revelation are the twelve chieftains who are on the side of Ohrmazd, (19) and those seven planets are called the seven chieftains who are on the side of Ahriman. 20. Those seven planets pervert every creature and creation, and deliver them up to death and every evil. 21. And, as it were, those twelve constellations and seven planets are organizing and managing the world. 22. ‘Ohrmazd is wishing good, and never approves nor contemplates evil. 23. Ahriman is wishing evil, and does not meditate nor approve anything good whatever. 24. Ohrmazd, when he wishes it, is able to alter as regards the creatures of Ahriman; and Ahriman, too, it is, who, when he wishes it, can do so as regards the creatures of Ohrmazd, (25) but he is only able to alter so that in the final effect there may be no injury of Ohrmazd, (26) because the final victory is Ohrmazd’s own. 27. For it is declared, that “the Yim [Jamshed] and Faridoon and Kay Us of Ohrmazd are created immortal, (28) and Ahriman so altered them as is known. 29. And Ahriman so contemplated that Bevarasp [= Azi Zohak] and Frasiyav and Alexander should be immortal, (30) but Ohrmazd, for great advantage, so altered them as that which is declared.”‘ CHAPTER 9. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is it possible to go from region to region [karshwar], or not? 3. From what substance is the sky made? 4. And how and in what manner is the mingling of the water in the earth?’ 5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus: ‘Without the permission of the sacred beings, or the permission of the demons, it is then not possible for one to go from region to region. 7. ‘The sky is made from the substance of the blood-stone, such as they also call diamond (almast). 8. ‘And the mingling of the water in the earth is just like the blood in the body of man.’ CHAPTER 10. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Can there be any peace and affection whatever of Ahriman, the wicked, and his demons and miscreations, with Ohrmazd and the archangels, one with the other, or not?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘There cannot be, on any account whatever; (5) because Ahriman meditates evil falsehood and its deeds, wrath and malice and discord, (6) and Ohrmazd meditates righteousness and its deeds, good works and goodness and truth. 7. And everything can change, except good and bad nature. 8. A good nature cannot change to evil by any means whatever, and a bad nature to goodness in any manner. 9. Ohrmazd, on account of a good nature, approves no evil and falsehood; (10) and Ahriman, on account of a bad nature, accepts no goodness and truth; (11) and, on this account, there cannot be for them any peace and affection whatever, one with the other.’ CHAPTER 11. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is wisdom good, or skill, or goodness?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Wisdom with which there is no goodness, is not to be considered as wisdom; (5) and skill with which there is no wisdom, is not to be considered as skill.’ CHAPTER 12. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: Wherefore is it when the treasure of the spiritual existence is allotted so truly, and that of the worldly existence so falsely?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘The treasure of the worldly existence was a allotted as truly, in the original creation, as that of the spiritual existence. 5. And the creator, Ohrmazd, provided the happiness of every kind, that is in these creatures and creation, for the use (bun) of the sun and moon and those twelve constellations which are called the twelve chieftains by revelation; (6) and they, too, accepted it in order to allot it truly and deservedly. 7. ‘And, afterwards, Ahriman produced those seven planets, such as are called the seven chieftains of Ahriman, for dissipating and carrying off that happiness from the creatures of Ohrmazd, in opposition to the sun and moon and those twelve constellations. 8. And as to every happiness which those constellations bestow on the creatures of Ohrmazd, (9) those planets take away as much of it as it is possible for them (the constellations) to give, (10) and give it up to the power of the demons and fiends and the bad. 11. ‘And the treasure of the spiritual existence is so true on this account, because Ohrmazd, the lord, with all the angels and archangels, is undisturbed, (12) and they make the struggle with Ahriman and the demons, and also the account of the souls of men, with justice. 13. And the place of him whose good work is more is in heaven, (14) the place of him whose good work and sin are equal is among the ever-stationary, (15) and when the crime is more, his path is then to hell.’ CHAPTER 13. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when oxen and sheep, birds, flying creatures, and fish are, each one, properly learned in that which is their own knowledge, (3) and men, so long as they bring no instruction unto them, and they do not perform much toil and trouble (anjino) about it, are not able to obtain and know the learning of the human race?’ 4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘Men have been so wise, in the original creation, that, as to the good works and crime which were performed by them, the recompense of the good works and the punishment of the crime were then seen by them with their own eyes, (6) and no crime whatever proceeded from men. 7. But, afterwards, Ahriman, the wicked, concealed the recompense of good works and the punishment of sin. 8. And on this account, moreover, it is said in revelation (9) that: “These four things are worse and more grievous than every evil which the accursed evil one, the wicked, committed upon the creatures of Ohrmazd, (10) that is, when the reward of good works and punishment of sin, the thoughts of men, and the consequence of actions were quite concealed by him.” 11. ‘And, for the same reason, he made many devotions and improper creeds current in the world. 12. And, on account of men’s not knowing of duty and good works, every one believes that most, and considers it as good, which his teaching in devotion has included. 13. And that devotion, in particular, is more powerful, with which sovereignty exists. 14. But that one is the lordship and sovereignty of Vishtasp, the king of kings, (15) by whom, on account of knowing it unquestionably and certainly (aevariha), the perfect and true religion, which is in the word of the creator Ohrmazd, was received from the unique Zartosht, the Spitaman, (16) who has manifested clearly, explicitly, and unquestionably the treasure of the worldly and spiritual existences, of every kind, from the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 17. There is then no other creed, through which it is possible for one to obtain and know the treasure of the worldly and spiritual existences so explicitly and clearly, (18) but, on account of much controversy, they are so cut up (agishtako) and entangled, that the statements of their beginning are much unlike to the middle, and the middle to the end.’ CHAPTER 14. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which protection is the more defensive? 3. Which friend (4) and which supporter of fame are good? 5. Which helper of enjoyment is good? 6. Which wealth is the pleasanter? 7. And which is the supremest pleasure of all pleasures?’ 8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus: ‘The sacred being is the more defensive protection. 10. A virtuous brother is a good friend. 11. A child, who is virtuous and an upholder of religion, is a good supporter of fame. 12. A virtuous wife, who is well-disposed, is a good helper of enjoyment. 13. That wealth is better and pleasanter which is collected by honesty, and one consumes and maintains with duties and good works. 14. And the pleasures which are superior to all pleasures are health of body, freedom from fear, good repute, and righteousness.’ CHAPTER 15. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is poverty good, or opulence?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Poverty which is through honesty is better than opulence which is from the treasure of others. 5. For it is stated (6) thus: “As to him who is the poorest and most secluded (armeshttum) person, whenever he keeps his thoughts, words, and deeds honest, and in duty to the sacred beings, for him even there is lawfully a share of all the duties and good works which mankind shall do in the world. 7. As to him, too, who is opulent, who is a man of much wealth, when the wealth is not produced by honesty, though he takes trouble (anjinako) in duties and good works and righteous gifts, his good work is then not his own, (8) because the good work is his from whom the wealth is abstracted.” 9. ‘And as to that much wealth which is collected by proper exertion, and one consumes and maintains with duties and good works and pleasure, even that is no better thereby, (10) because it is necessary to consider that as perfect. 11. But as to him who is a man of much wealth, whose wealth is collected by proper exertion, and he consumes and maintains it with duties and good works and pleasure, he is great and good and more perfect’. 12. ‘And regarding even that which is sovereignty they state (13) thus: “What is good government in a village is better than what is bad government in a realm. 14. Because the creator Ohrmazd produced good government for effecting the protection of the creatures, (15) and Ahriman, the wicked, has produced bad government as the adversary of good government.” 16. ‘Good government is that which maintains and directs a province flourishing, the poor untroubled, and the law and custom true, (17) and sets aside improper laws and customs. 18. It well maintains water and fire by law, (19) and keeps in progress the ceremonial of the sacred beings, duties, and good works. 20. It causes friendliness and pleading for the poor, (21) and delivers up itself, and even that which is its own life, for the sake of the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 22. And if there be any one who desists from the way of the sacred beings, then it orders some one to effect his restoration thereto; (23) it also makes him a prisoner, and brings him back to the way of the sacred beings; (24) it allots, out of the wealth that is his, the share of the sacred beings and the worthy, of good works and the poor; (25) and delivers up the body for the sake of the soul. 26. A good king, who is of that kind, is called equal to the angels and archangels. 27. ‘Bad government is that (28) which destroys the true and proper law and custom, (29) and brings oppression, plunder, and injudiciousness into practice. 30. It dissipates the treasure of the spiritual existence, (31) and considers duty and good works a vexation, through greediness. 32. It keeps back a person performing good works from doing good works, (33) and he thereby becomes a doer of harm. (34) Its disbursement, too, of every kind is for its own self, (35) the administration of the treasure of the worldly existence, (36) the celebrity and exaltation of the vile, (37) the destruction and neglect of the good, (38) and the annihilation of the poor. 39. A bad king, who is of that kind, is called equal to Ahriman and the demons.’ CHAPTER 16. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Of the food which men eat, and the clothing which men put on, which are the more valuable and good?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Of the food which men eat, the milk of goats is produced good. 5. Because, as to men and quadrupeds, who are born from a mother, until the time when food is eaten by them, their growth and nourishment are then from milk, (6) and on milk they can well live. 7. And if men, when they withdraw from the milk of the mother, make thorough experience of the milk of goats, (8) then bread is not necessary for use among them. 9. Since it is declared, (10) that “the food of mankind, who are in Arezahi and Sawahi, Fradadhafshu and Widadhafshu, Wourubareshti and Wourujareshti, is the milk of goats and cows; (11) other food they do not eat.” 12. And he who is a milk-consuming man is healthier and stronger, and even the procreation of children becomes more harmless. 13. ‘Of grains wheat is called great and good, (14) because it is the chief of grains, (15) and even by the Avesta its name is then specified in the chieftainship of grains. 16. ‘And of fruit the date and grape are called great and good. 17. When bread has not come, it is necessary to consecrate the sacred cake by means of fruit; (18) when the fruit to consecrate is the date or grape, it is allowable to eat every fruit; (19) and when those have not come, it is necessary to eat that fruit which is consecrated. 20. ‘Regarding wine it is evident, that it is possible for good and bad temper to come to manifestation through wine. 21. The goodness of a man is manifested in anger, the wisdom of a man in irregular desire. 22. For he whom anger hurries on (aushtavet) is able to recover himself from it through goodness, (23) he whom lust hurries on is able to recover himself from it through wisdom, (24) and he whom wine hurries on is able to recover himself from it through temper. 25. ‘It is not requisite for investigation, (26) because he who is a good-tempered man, when he drinks wine, is such-like as a gold or silver cup which, however much more they burn it, becomes purer and brighter. 27. It also keeps his thoughts, words, and deeds more virtuous; (28) and he becomes gentler and pleasanter unto wife and child, companions and friends, (29) and is more diligent in every duty and good work. 30. ‘And he who is a bad-tempered man, when he drinks wine, thinks and considers himself more than ordinary. 31. He carries on a quarrel with companions, displays insolence, makes ridicule and mockery, (32) and acts arrogantly to a good person. 33. He distresses his own wife and child, slave and servant; (34) and dissipates the joy of the good, (35) carries off peace, and brings in discord. 36. ‘But every one must be cautious as to the moderate drinking of wine. 37. Because, from the moderate drinking of wine, thus much benefit happens to him: (38) since it digests the food, (39) kindles the vital fire, (40) increases the understanding and intellect, semen and blood, (41) removes vexation, (42) and inflames the complexion. 43. It causes recollection of things forgotten, (44) and goodness takes a place in the mind. (45) It likewise increases the sight of the eye, the hearing of the ear, and the speaking of the tongue; (46) and work, which it is necessary to do and expedite, becomes more progressive. 47. He also sleeps pleasantly in the sleeping place, and rises light. 48. And, on account of these contingencies, good repute for the body, righteousness for the soul, and also the approbation of the good come upon him. 49. ‘And in him who drinks wine more than moderately, thus much defect becomes manifest, (50) since it diminishes his wisdom, understanding and intellect, semen and blood; (51) it injures the liver and accumulates disease, (52) it alters the complexion, (53) and diminishes the strength and vigor. 54. The homage and glorification of the sacred beings become forgotten. 55. The sight of the eye, the hearing of the ear, and the speaking of the tongue become less. 56. He distresses Hordad and Amurdad (57) and entertains a desire of lethargy. 58. That, also, which it is necessary for him to say and do, remains undone; (59) and he sleeps in uneasiness, and rises uncomfortably. 60. And, on account of these contingencies, himself, wife, and child, friend and kindred are distressed and unhappy, (61) and the superintendent of troubles and the enemy are glad. 62. The sacred beings, also, are not pleased with him; (63) and infamy comes to his body, and even wickedness to his soul. 64. ‘Of the dress which people possess and put on, silk is good for the body, and cotton for the soul. 65. For this reason, because silk arises from a noxious creature, (66) and the nourishment of cotton is from water, and its growth from earth; and as a treasure of the soul it is called great and good and more valuable.’ CHAPTER 17. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which is that pleasure which is worse than unhappiness?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Whoever has acquired wealth by crime, and he becomes glad of it thereby, then that pleasure is worse for him than unhappiness.’ CHAPTER 18. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore do people consider these very little, these four things which it is necessary for them to consider more, as warnings (dakhshak), (3) the changeableness of the things of the worldly existence, the death of the body, the account of the soul, and the fear of hell?’ 4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘On account of the delusiveness (niyazanih) of the demon of greediness, and of discontent.’ CHAPTER 19. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is living in fear and falsehood worse, or death?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘To live in fear and falsehood is worse than death. 5. Because every one’s life is necessary for the enjoyment and pleasure of the worldly existence, (6) and when the enjoyment and pleasure of the worldly existence are not his, and fear and even falsehood are with him, it is called worse than death.’ CHAPTER 20. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘For kings which is the one thing more advantageous, and which the more injurious?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘For kings conversation with the wise and good is the one thing more advantageous, (5) and speaking and conversation with slanderers and double-dealers are the more injurious for them.’ CHAPTER 21. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is the end of the world-arranging and spirit-destroying man? 3. What is the end of him who is a scoffing man? 4-6. What is the end of the idle, the malicious, and the lazy man? 7. What is the end of a false-hearted one, (8) and the end of an arrogant one?’ 9. The spirit of wisdom answered (10) thus: ‘He who is a world-arranging and spirit-destroying man is as injured, in the punishment of the three nights [i.e. the final judgment], as a raging fire when water comes upon it. 11. ‘Of him who is a scoffing man there is no glory in body and soul; (12) and every time when he opens his mouth his wickedness then increases. 13. All the fiends, too, become so lodged in his body, that they leave no goodness whatever for his body; (14) and he makes mockery of the good, and glorification of the vile. 15. Also in the worldly existence his body is infamous, and in the spiritual existence his soul is wicked. 16. And, for effecting his punishment in hell, they deliver him over to the scoffing fiend; (17) and that fiend inflicts a ridicule and a mockery upon him with every single punishment. 18. ‘As to him who is an idle man, yet devoid of wickedness, mostly when death comes on in the worldly existence, he thereupon (ajash) begets pleasantly for the sake of another. 19. ‘The bridge [Chinwad] which is for the soul of him who is a malicious man is more difficult than for the other wicked who are in hell. 20. For this reason, because malice proceeds by lineage; (21) and it is possible to manage every sin better than malice, (22) because malice will abide in a lineage. 23. There are instances when it adheres until the renovation of the universe; (24) for it is clearly declared by the pure revelation, (25) that the origin of the estrangement (aniranih) of the Arumans, and even the Turanians, from the Iranians, was owing to that malice which was generated by them through the slaughter of Airik; (26) as it always adheres until the renovation. 27. ‘He who is a lazy man is said to be the most unworthy of men. 28. Because it is declared by revelation, (29) that the creator Ohrmazd produced no corn for him who is a lazy man; (30) for him who is a lazy man there is then no giving of anything in gifts and charity, (31) and lodging and entertainment are not to be provided for him. 32. For this reason, because that food which a lazy man eats, he eats through impropriety and injustice; (33) and, on account of his laziness and unjust eating, his body then becomes infamous and the soul wicked. 34. ‘He who is a false-hearted man is as dubious in good things as in bad; (35) he is dubious as to the treasure of the spiritual and worldly existences, and also as to the ceremonial, invocation, and service of the sacred beings. 36. And, on account of these circumstances, the angels and archangels shall accept little of the ceremonial and invocations which he performs, (37) and give unto him little of the gain, too, which he seeks. 38. And in the mouth of the good man he is always infamous, (39) and his soul becomes wicked. 40. ‘The friends of him who is an arrogant man are few, and his enemies many. 41. And even of the gifts which he gives to any one, and the ceremonial, too, which he performs for the sacred beings, they shall accept little, on account of his arrogance, (42) and give little of the gain, too, which he seeks. 43. And in hell they deliver him to the fiend of arrogance, in order to inflict punishment upon his soul; (44) and the fiend of arrogance inflicts punishment of various kinds upon it, and is not pacified.’ CHAPTER 22. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is it possible to provide, for one’s own hand, the treasure and wealth of the worldly existence through exertion, or not?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘It is not possible to provide for one’s self, through exertion, that benefit which is not ordained; (5) but a morsel (kazd) of that which is ordained comes on by means of exertion. 6. Yet the exertion, when it is fruitless in the worldly existence, through the sacred beings not being with it, still comes, afterwards, to one’s assistance in the spiritual existence, and outweighs in the balance.’ CHAPTER 23. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus; ‘Is it possible to contend with destiny through wisdom and knowledge, or not?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Even with the might and powerfulness of wisdom and knowledge, even then it is not possible to contend with destiny. 5. Because, when predestination as to virtue, or as to the reverse, comes forth, the wise becomes wanting (niyazan) in duty, and the astute in evil becomes intelligent; (6) the faint-hearted becomes braver, and the braver becomes faint-hearted; (7) the diligent becomes lazy, and the lazy acts diligently. (8) Just as is predestined as to the matter, the cause enters into it, (9) and thrusts out everything else.’ CHAPTER 24. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘On account of the begging of favors, and the practice and worthiness of good works, do the sacred beings also grant anything to men otherwise, or not?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘They grant; (5) for there are such as they call thus: “Destiny and divine providence.” 6. Destiny is that which is ordained from the beginning, (7) and divine providence is that which they also grant otherwise. 8. But the sacred beings provide and manifest in the spiritual existence little of that grant, on this account, because Ahriman, the wicked, through the power of the seven planets extorts wealth, and also every other benefit of the worldly existence, from the good and worthy, and grants them more fully to the bad and unworthy.’ CHAPTER 25. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Of the rich who is the poorer, and of the poor who is the richer?’ 3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Of the rich he is the poorer who is not content with that which is his, (5) and suffers anxiety for the increase of anything. 6. ‘And of the poor he is the richer who is content with that which has come, (7) and cares not for the increase of anything.’ CHAPTER 26. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Is a blind eye worse, or a blind mind (dil)? 3. Is the ill-informed worse, or the bad-tempered?’ 4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘He who is blind-eyed, when he has understanding in anything, and accomplishes learning, is to be considered as sound-eyed. 6. And he who is sound-eyed, when he has no knowledge and understanding, and even that which they teach him he does not accept, then that is worse than even a blind eye. 7. ‘The ill-tempered is less evil than the ill-informed; (8) because the ill-tempered, except by a decree, is not able to seize anything away from any one; (g) and as to the ill-informed man, his desire of every kind is then for oppression and plunder. 10. Concerning him who is ill-informed it is declared that, apart from predestination, he is born free from fresh understanding.’ CHAPTER 27. 1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore have the people who were from Gayomard, and those, too, who were lords and monarchs, from Hooshang, the Peshdad, even unto Vishtasp, the king of kings, been such doers of their own wills? 3. Much benefit was also obtained by them from the sacred beings, (4) and they have been mostly those who were ungrateful unto the sacred beings, (5) and there are some even who have been very ungrateful, promise-breaking, and sinful. 6. For what benefit then have they been severally created, (7) and what result and advantage proceeded from them?’ 8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus: ‘That which thou askest concerning them, as to benefit, or as to the reverse, thou shouldst become aware of and fully understand. 10. Because the affairs of the world of every kind proceed through destiny and time and the supreme decree of the self-existent eternity (zurvan), the king and long-continuing lord. 11. Since, at various periods, it happens unto every one, for whom it is allotted, just as that which is necessary to happen. 12. As even from the mutual connection of those ancients, who are passed away, it is manifest (13) that, ultimately, that benefit arose which was necessary to come from them to the creatures of Ohrmazd. 14. ‘Because the advantage from Gayomard was this, (15) first, the slaying of Arzur, and making delivery of his own body, with g

    January 26, 2013 at 7:22 pm

  10. For the complete text http://www.avesta.org/mp/mx.html#chapter9

    CHAPTER 28.

    1. ‘The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Who is the more forgiving (vakhshayaniktar)? 3. What is the more in strength? 4. What is the swifter? 5. What is the happier? 6. What is the more miserable?’

    7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: ‘Ohrmazd, the lord, is the more forgiving. 9. He saw the nine thousand years’ mischief among his own creatures, owing to Ahriman, yet afterwards, through justice and forgiveness, he does not then smite him for it.

    10. ‘And the celestial sphere is the more in strength. 11. ‘The intellect of mankind is the swifter. 12. The souls of the righteous are the happier. 13. And those of the wicked are the more penitent.’

    CHAPTER 29.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is it necessary to keep with more regard and more protection?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘It is necessary to keep a young serving-boy (rasik), a wife, a beast of burden, and a fire with more protection and more regard.’

    CHAPTER 30.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which of any living existence (zivendag-I) is the worse? 3. And in wisdom who is the more unforeseeing?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘A life of him is the worse, who lives in fear and falsehood. 6. And in wisdom he is the more unforeseeing, who does not provide for the spiritual existence, and attends to the worldly one.’

    CHAPTER 31.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is the business of the priests, warriors, and husbandmen, each separately?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘The business of the priests is to maintain the religion properly; (5) and to perform the ceremonial and invocation of the sacred beings well and with attention, (6) and the decrees, decisions, custom, and control, as revealed by the pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 7. To make people aware of the goodness of good works; (8) and to show the way to heaven, and the danger and avoidance of hell.

    9. ‘The business of the warriors is to defeat the enemy; (10) and to keep their own country and land (bum) unalarmed and tranquil.

    11. ‘And the business of the husbandmen is to perform tillage and cultivation; (12) and, to the extent of their ability, to keep the world invigorated and populous.’

    CHAPTER 32.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is the business of the well-endeavoring, the artisans?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘The business of the artisans is this, (5) that as to that work which they do not understand, they do not bring a hand to it; (6) and that which they well understand (hu-danend), they perform well and with attention; (7) and they demand wages lawfully. (8). For as to him who persists in doing that work which he does not understand, it is he by whom that work is spoiled and becomes useless; and when, moreover, he is a man whose work makes himself satisfied, it then becomes even an origin of sin for him.’

    CHAPTER 33.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘As to a ruler, (3) a chieftain, (4) a friend, (5) a kinsman, (6) a wife, (7) a child, (8) and a country, which is the worse?’

    9. The spirit of wisdom answered (10) thus: ‘That ruler is the worse, that is not able to keep the country unalarmed, and the people untroubled. 11. That chieftain is the worse, who is defective in ability, unthankful unto agents (kartaran), and no helper and interceder for a servant (ashak). 12. That friend is the worse, who is not fit to be relied upon. 13. That kinsman is the worse, who is no helper in illness (khastanak). 14. That wife is the worse, with whom it is not possible to live with pleasure. 15. That child is the worse, who is no bringer of renown. 16. And that country is the worse, in which it is not possible to live in happiness, fearlessness, and permanence.’

    CHAPTER 34.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Has the creator Ohrmazd produced the creation of anything whatever for the worldly existence, unto which Ahriman is not able to bring disturbance?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘To him who is a wise and contented man it is but little possible to bring disturbance.’

    CHAPTER 35.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How many are those people whom it is necessary to consider as rich, and how many are those who are poor?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘These are the people it is necessary to consider as rich: — (5) one is he who is perfect in wisdom; (6) the second, whose body is healthy, and he lives fearlessly; (7) the third, who is content with that which has come; (8) the fourth, he whose destiny is a helper in virtue; (9) the fifth, who is well-famed in the eyes of the sacred beings, and by the tongues of the good; (10) the sixth, whose trust is on this one, pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers; (11) and the seventh, whose wealth is from honesty.

    12. ‘And these are the people to be considered as poor: — (13) one is he with whom there is no wisdom; (14) the second, whose body is not healthy; (15) the third, who lives in his fear, terror, and falsehood; (16) the fourth, who is not ruling in his own body; (17) the fifth, whose destiny is no helper; (18) the sixth, who is infamous in the eyes of the sacred beings, and on the tongues of the good; (19) and the seventh, who is old, and no child and kindred exist.’

    CHAPTER 36.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which sin is the more heinous?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Of the sin which people commit, unnatural intercourse is the more heinous. 5. The second is he who has suffered or performed intercourse with men. 6. The third, who slays a righteous man. 7. The fourth, who breaks off a next-of-kin marriage. 8. The fifth, who destroys the arrangement of an adopted son (sator). 9. The sixth, who smites the fire of Warharan. 10. The seventh, who kills a water-beaver [baprako-i avik = Av. bawrish upapo]. 11. The eighth, who worships an idol. 12. The ninth, who believes and wishes to worship in every religion. 13. The tenth, who consumes anything which is received into his custody, and becomes an embezzler. 14. The eleventh is he who, through sinfulness, provides support for wickedness. 15. The twelfth, who does no work, but eats unthankfully and unlawfully. 16. The thirteenth, who commits heresy (zandikih). 17. The fourteenth, who commits witchcraft. 18. The fifteenth, who commits apostasy (aharmokih). 19. The sixteenth, who commits demon-worship. 20. The seventeenth, who commits theft, or abetting (avagitih) of thieves. 21. The eighteenth, who commits promise-breaking. 22. The nineteenth, who commits maliciousness. 23. The twentieth, who commits oppression to make the things of others his own. 24. The twenty-first, who distresses a righteous man. 25. The twenty-second, who commits slander. 26. The twenty-third, who commits arrogance. 27. The twenty-fourth, who goes to a professional courtesan. 28. The twenty-fifth, who commits ingratitude. 29. The twenty-sixth, who speaks false and untrue. 30. The twenty-seventh, who causes discontent as to the affairs of those who are departed. 31. The twenty-eighth, whose pleasure is from viciousness and harassing the good. 32. The twenty-ninth, who considers sin as to be urged on, and a good work as a day’s delay. 33. And the thirtieth, who becomes grieved by that happiness which is provided by him for anyone.’

    CHAPTER 37.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Through how many ways and motives of good works do people arrive most at heaven?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: The first good work is liberality. 5. The second, truth. 6. The third, thankfulness. 7. The fourth, contentment. The fifth, wanting to produce welfare for the good, and becoming a friend to every one. 9. The sixth, being without doubt as to this, that the sky and earth and every benefit of the worldly and spiritual existences are owing to the creator Ohrmazd. 10. The seventh, being so as to the unquestionableness of this, that all misery and affliction are owing to Ahriman the wicked, who is accursed. 11. The eighth, freedom from doubt as to the resurrection and future existence. 12. The ninth, who for love of the soul effects a next-of-kin marriage. 13. The tenth, who arranges adoption. 14. The eleventh, who practices regular industry. 15. The twelfth, who is without doubt in this pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 16. The thirteenth, who is kindly regardful as to the ability and means of every one. 17. The fourteenth, who perceives the kind regard of the good, and becomes himself, also, kindly regardful as to the goodness which one wants among the good. 18. The fifteenth, who seeks the affection of the good. 19. The sixteenth, who keeps malice and uncharitableness far from his mind. 20. The seventeenth, who bears no improper envy. 21. The eighteenth, who forms no desire of lust. 22. The nineteenth, who produces no discord with any one. 23. The twentieth, who brings no distress into the affairs of a departed and unassisted one (avijit). 24. The twenty-first, who lets no wrath into his body. 25. The twenty-second, who commits no sin on account of disgrace. 26. The twenty-third, who forms no desire of lethargy on account of laziness. 27. The twenty-fourth, who is without doubt as to the sacred beings. 28. The twenty-fifth, who is without doubt as to the existence of heaven and hell, and the account which is to be rendered by the soul, the glory which is in heaven, and the misery which is in hell. 29. The twenty-sixth, who abstains from slander and envious looks. 30. The twenty-seventh, who causes the happiness of himself, and gives happy advancement also to others. 31. The twenty-eighth, who becomes the help of the good, and accuser of the bad. 32. The twenty-ninth, who restrains himself from deceit and evil (dushih). 33. The thirtieth, who does not speak false and untrue. 34. The thirty-first, who restrains himself firmly from promise-breaking. 35. The thirty-second, who, for the sake of seeking his own benefit and happiness, causes the abstinence of others from evil. 36. And the thirty-third, who provides lodging accommodation for the sick and secluded and traders.’

    CHAPTER 38.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when they do not allot the happiness of the worldly existence according to worthiness, and they make the soul a seizer upon the spiritual existences by worthiness of action?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘On account of the compassion of Ohrmazd, the lord, as regards the creatures, he allots all happiness alike among the good and alike among the bad. 5. But when it does not always come upon them, it is on account of the oppression of Ahriman and the demons, and the extortion of those seven planets.

    6. ‘And they make one a seizer upon the spiritual existences, by worthiness of action, on this account, because the wickedness of anyone arises through the performance of his own actions.’

    CHAPTER 39.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which power is the more seemly? 3. In wisdom who is the more complete? 4. And in disposition who is the more faithful? 5. Whose speech is the more proper? 6. In whose mind is the goodness little? 7. And as a friend who is the worse? 8. In whose mind is the pleasure little? 9. In heart who is the more seemly? 10. In endurance who is the more approvable? 11. Who is not to be considered as faithful? 12. What is that which is worth keeping with every one? 13. And what is that which is not to be kept with any one? 14. What is to be preserved in conversation? 15. Who is he that is not to be accepted as a witness? I6. And unto whom is it necessary to be obedient? 17. What is it more necessary to mind and to keep praising? 18. What is that which is not to be made unrespected in any way? 19. What is he who, in his own degree, is said to be such as Ohrmazd and the archangels? 20. And what is he who, in his own degree, is such as Ahriman and the demons?’

    21. The spirit of wisdom answered (22) thus: ‘In power he is the more seemly who, when he indulges his wrath, is able to allay the wrath, and not commit sin and gratify himself. 23. And in wisdom he is the more complete who is able to preserve his own soul. 24. In disposition he is the more faithful, in whom there is nothing whatever of deceit and pretense. 25. The speech of him is the more proper who speaks more true. 26. Goodness is little in the mind of a man of wrath. 27. As a friend, malicious man who is a fighter is worse. 28. And pleasure is little in the mind of him who is an envious man. 29. In heart he is the more seemly who abandons the worldly existence and seizes the spiritual one; (30) and by his own will accepts righteousness as a yoke (val chavarman). 31. And in endurance he is the more approvable who, contentedly and with a will accepts, as a yoke, the misery and affliction which come upon him from Ahriman and the demons and the vile; (32) and it, in no way, harasses his own soul. 33. He is not to be considered as faithful who has no fear of the sacred beings, nor shame as to mankind. 34. Those which are worth keeping with every one are peace and affection. 35. And those which are not to be kept with any one whatever are malice and discord. 36. All these three are to be preserved in conversation: good thoughts, good words, and good deeds in one’s own thinking, speaking, and doing. 37. These three are not to be accepted as a witness: a woman, a young serving-boy, and a man-slave. 38. These are such as must be personally obedient and do service: (39) the wife unto the husband, (40) and the child unto the father and mother, the chieftain and high-priest, the teacher, the adopted son, and secluded kindred. 41. And unto rulers, chieftains, and teachers one is also to be obedient. 42. The sacred beings it is more necessary to mind and to keep praising. 43. And one’s own soul is not to be made unrespected in any mode, (44) and is always to be kept in remembrance. 45. The judge who exercises true justice, and takes no bribe, is, in his own degree, such as Ohrmazd and the archangels. 46. And he who exercises false justice is said to be, in his own degree, such as Ahriman and the demons.’

    CHAPTER 40.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is the colder and what is the warmer? 3. What is the brighter and what is the darker? 4. What is the fuller and what is the emptier? 5. What end is the more fruitless? 6. What is that thing of which no superfluity arises for any one? 7. What is that which no one is able to deprive one of? 8. What is that thing which it is not possible to buy at a price? 9. What is that thing with which every one is always satisfied? 10. What is that with which no one whatever is satisfied? 11. What is that one wish that Ohrmazd, the lord, contemplates as regards men? 12. What is that one wish that Ahriman, the wicked, contemplates as regards men? 13. What is the end of the worldly existence and what is the end of the spiritual one?’

    14. The spirit of wisdom answered (15) thus: ‘The heart of the righteous is the warmer, and that of the wicked the colder. 16. Righteousness is the brighter, and wickedness the darker. 17. The hope and protection which pertain to the sacred beings are the fuller, and those which pertain to the demons are the emptier. 18. The end of the world-arranging and spirit-destroying man is the more fruitless. 19. It is knowledge of which no one knows a superfluity. 20. It is learning and skill which no one is able to deprive one of. 21. It is understanding and intellect which it is not possible to buy at a price. 22. It is wisdom with which every one and one’s own self are untroubled and satisfied. 23. It is stupidity and ignorance with which every one and even one’s own self are troubled and not satisfied.

    24. ‘That one wish which Ohrmazd, the lord, contemplates as regards men is this, (25) that “ye shall fully understand me; for every one who fully understands me, comes after me and strives for my satisfaction.” 26. And that one wish which Ahriman contemplates as regards men is this, (27) that “ye shall not understand me;” for he knows that whoever fully understands that wicked one, does not go after his evil deeds, (28) and nothing whatever of power and help for him arises from that man.

    29. ‘And as to that which is asked by thee ‘concerning the spiritual and worldly existences, the worldly existence is, in the end, death and, disappearance, (30) and of the spiritual existence, in the end, that of a soul of the righteous is undecaying, immortal, and undisturbed, full of glory and full of enjoyment, forever and everlasting, with the angels and archangels and the guardian spirits [farohars] of the righteous. 31. And the [Chinwad] bridge and destruction and punishment of the wicked in hell are for ever and everlasting. 32. And the wicked soul, apart from the punishment, contemplates the existence, and even the appearance, with the demons and fiends just as, in the worldly existence, a healthy man does that with him who is very grievously sick.’

    CHAPTER 41.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which man is the mightier? 3. Which road is the more dreadful? 4. Which account is the more perplexing? 5. Which tie is the pleasanter? 6. Which work is the more regrettable? 7. And which gift is the more unprofitable?’

    8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus: ‘That man is the mightier who is able to struggle with his own fiends; (10) and, in particular, he who keeps these five fiends far from his person, (11) which are such as greediness, wrath, lust, disgrace, and discontent. 12. The road in passing over the Chinwad bridge is the more dreadful. 13. The account for a soul of the wicked is the more perplexing. 14. The tie of children is the pleasanter and more desirable. 15. That work is the more regrettable which they do for the ungrateful. 16. And that gift is the more unprofitable which they give to the unworthy.’

    CHAPTER 42.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How many kinds of man are there?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘There are three kinds of man, (5) one is man, one is demi-man, and one is demi-demon.

    6. ‘A man is he who is without doubt as to the creativeness of Ohrmazd, the destructiveness of Ahriman, and the existence of the resurrection and future existence; and also as regards every other happiness and misery, in the worldly and spiritual existences, (7) that its origin is from both of those beings, from Ohrmazd and Ahriman. 8. And his belief is in this one pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers; (9) and he does not believe in, and does not hearken unto, any heterodoxy.

    10. ‘A demi-man is he who performs the affairs of the worldly and spiritual existences according to his own opinion, self-conceitedly and obstinately; (11) be they duties and good works by the will of Ohrmazd, or be they by the will of Ahriman, they proceed from him.

    12. ‘A demi-demon is he in whom there is only as it were the name of man and the human race, but in his doing of every action he is then like unto a two-legged demon. 13. He understands no worldly and no spiritual existence, (14) he understands no good work and no sin, (15) he understands no heaven and no hell, (16) and even the account which is to be rendered by the soul he does not think of.’

    CHAPTER 43.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How is it possible to make Ohrmazd, the archangels, and the fragrant, well-pleasing heaven more fully for oneself? 3. And how is it possible to make Ahriman, the wicked, and the demons confounded and to escape from hell, the depreciated and dark?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘To make Ohrmazd, the lord, and the archangels, and the fragrant, well-pleasing heaven for oneself, and Ahriman, the wicked, and the demons confounded, and to escape from hell, the dark and depreciated, are possible thus: (6) that is, when they make the spirit of wisdom a protection for the back (pushtik-panakih), (7) and wear the spirit of contentment on the body, like arms and armor and valor, (8) and make the spirit of truth a shield, (9) the spirit of thankfulness a club, (10) the spirit of complete mindfulness a bow, (11) and the spirit of liberality an arrow; (12) and they make the spirit of moderation like a spear, (13) the spirit of perseverance a gauntlet, and they put forth the spirit of destiny as a protection. 14. In this manner it is possible to come to heaven and the sight of the sacred beings, and to escape from Ahriman, the wicked, and hell, the depreciated.’

    CHAPTER 44.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How are the sky and earth arranged? 3. How are the flow and arrangement of the water in the world? 4. Whereon do the clouds rest? 5. Where is the demon of winter more predominant? 6. And which country is the more undisturbed?’

    7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: ‘The sky and earth and water, and whatever else is within them are egg-like (khaiyak-dish), just as it were like the egg of a bird. 9. The sky is arranged above the earth, like an egg, by the handiwork of the creator Ohrmazd; (10) and the semblance of the earth, in the midst of the sky, is just like as it were the yolk amid the egg; (11) and the water within the earth and sky is such as the water within the egg.

    12. ‘And the flow of the water of every kind which is in the world is from the region of Arezahi (13) there where the sun comes up; and its downward surge (nigun balishno) is towards the region of Sawahi (14) where the sun goes down; and the surging on (abalishno) of the water is into the sea Putik, (15) and from the sea Putik it goes back to the sea Varkash.

    16. ‘The abode and seat of the clouds are on Alburz.

    17. ‘The demon of winter is more predominant in Eranvej. 18. And it is declared by revelation, (19) that in Eranvej there are “ten months winter and two months summer,” (20) and “even those” two months of warm weather “are cold as to water, cold as to earth, and cold as to plants.” 21. And their adversity is the winter, (22) and the snakes therein are many, (23) while their other adversity is little.

    24. ‘It is declared that Ohrmazd created Eranvej better than other places and districts. 25. And its goodness is this, that the life of the people is three hundred years, (26) and of the oxen and sheep one hundred and fifty years. 27. Their pain and sickness, also, are little; (28) they fabricate (drujend) no lies, (29) they make no lamentation and weeping, (30) and the domination of the demon of greediness (Az) in their bodies is little. 31. When they eat one loaf among tell men, they are satisfied. 32. And in every forty years one child is born from one woman and one man. 33. Their law, also, is goodness, and their religion the primitive faith; (34) and when they die they are righteous. 35. Their spiritual chief (ratu), likewise, is Gopaito, and their lord and king is Srosh.’

    CHAPTER 45.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘By what does Ahriman most deceive and lead people to hell? 3. And from what is his pleasure most? 4. Where is the place he has a foundation? 5. Where, also, is his coming, together with the demons, most? 6. And from what is his food?’

    7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus: ‘Ahriman deceives people most by prosperity and adversity, the fiend of apostasy, skepticism, and covetousness. 9. His pleasure, also, is most from the discord of men. 10. And his food is from the impenitence and reticence of men. 11. He has a foundation in the malicious. 12. And his coming and going are most with the wrathful.’

    CHAPTER 46.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which is the one oppression, as regards men, that Ahriman considers as the more injurious and great?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Ahriman, when he wrings life and wife and child and worldly happiness of every kind away from men, does not consider, as to this, that any injury whatever is inflicted by him upon that person; (5) but when he wrings away the soul of a single individual, and makes it utterly depraved, he then considers, as to this, that “an injury which is complete would thereby be inflicted by me,” because this is done by him through his own depravity of wish and action.’

    CHAPTER 47.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What is that thing which is the most perfect of all wealth? 3. What is that which is predominant over everything whatever? 4. And what is that from which no one is able to escape?’

    5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus: ‘It is wisdom which is better than the wealth of every kind which is in the world. 7. It is destiny which is predominant over every one and everything. 8. And it is Vae the bad from whom no one is able to escape.’

    CHAPTER 48.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How is the dwelling of the understanding and intellect and seed of men in the body?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘The place of the understanding and intellect and seed of men is in the brain of the head. 5. And when the brain of the head is sound, the understanding and intellect and seed are on the increase; (6) but when a person attains unto old age, the brain of the head remains only at a diminution. 7. And he who is an aged man, on account of the diminution of understanding and intellect, sees less and knows less of that which it is necessary to do with wisdom. 8. Wisdom, in the beginning, mingles with the marrow of the fingers of men’s hands; (9) and, afterwards, its seat and abode and place 1 are in the heart. 10. And its dwelling in the whole body becomes such as the shape of the foot in various shoes (mugchako).’

    CHAPTER 49.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘As to these stars which are apparent in the sky, and their number is so great, what is then their duty and influence? 3. And how is the motion of the sun and moon and stars?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘Of the stars which are in the sky the first star is Tishtar, which is said to be great and good, more valuable and more glorious. 6. And prosperity of every kind and the fertility of the world are in the path of Tishtar.

    7-8. ‘And the star of water germs is for the increase of the star of plant germs. 9-10. And the star of plant germs is for the increase of cattle germs. 11. And water, fire, plant, and cattle germs are created for the increase of man germs.

    12. ‘And the star Vanand is entrusted with the passes and gates of Alburz; (13) so that the demons and witches and fiends may turn from those gates and passes, (14) that it may not be possible for them to cut off and break up the road and passage of the sun and moon and stars.

    15. ‘And the star Haptoring, with 99,999 guardian spirits [farohars] of the righteous, is entrusted with the gate and passage of hell, (16) for the keeping back of those 99,999 demons and fiends, witches and wizards, who are in opposition to the celestial sphere and constellations of the zodiac. 17. Its motion, also, is round about hell; (18) and its special business is this, as it were it holds the twelve signs of the zodiac by the hand, in their proper going and coming. 19. And those twelve constellations also proceed in like manner by the power and help of Haptoring; (20) and every single constellation, when it comes in at Alburz, provides support for Haptoring, (21) and begs protection from Haptoring.

    22. ‘The remaining unnumbered and innumerable constellations which are apparent are said to be the guardian spirits of the worldly existences. 23. Because, as to the creatures and creations of every kind, that the creator Ohrmazd created for the worldly existence, which are procreative and also which are developable (arodishnik), for every single body there is apparent its own single guardian spirit of a like nature.

    24. ‘And the motion of the sun and moon is the special illumination of the world, (25) and the maturing of procreations and growths of all kinds. 26. And the correct keeping of the day, month, and year, summer and winter, spring and autumn, and other calculations and accounts of all kinds which men ought to obtain, perceive, and understand, (27) are more fully defined by means of the setting (nishivako) of the sun and moon.’

    CHAPTER 50.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which is that opulent person who is to be considered as fortunate, and which is that one who is to be considered as evil-conditioned?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘That one who has produced opulence by proper exertion is to be considered as fortunate; and that one who has produced it by dishonesty, as evil-conditioned.’

    CHAPTER 51.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when there are instances when a lazy, ignorant, and bad man attains to eminence and great welfare, (3) and there are instances when a worthy, wise, and good man attains to grievous misery, perplexity, and indigence?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘As to him who is a lazy, ignorant, and bad man, when his destiny becomes a helper, that laziness of his then becomes like unto diligence, that ignorance unto knowledge, and that vileness unto a goodness. 6. And as to him who is a wise, worthy, and good man, when his destiny is an opponent, that wisdom of his then turns to stupidity and foolishness (alakih), and that worthiness to ignorance; (7) and his knowledge, skill, and worthiness become manifestly secluded.’

    CHAPTER 52.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How is it necessary to perform the ceremonial of the sacred beings and the thanksgiving for the welfare which is owing to the sacred beings? 3. And how is the renunciation of sin to be performed for the preservation of the soul?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘That ceremonial of the sacred beings is good which they perform in this pure, good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 6. Its origin, also, is goodness and truth, and freedom from doubt in the sacred beings 7. And for the little and the much that has come there has arisen thanksgiving unto the sacred beings; and one is to meditate upon the gratifications (shnumakan) and prosperity which are owing to the sacred beings and to keep grateful. 8. And even when perplexity and misery come on from Ahriman and the demons, he is not to become doubtful as to the treasure of the sacred beings, (9) and not to diminish the thanksgiving unto the sacred beings. 10. And every disaster which springs up he is to give back to the violence of Ahriman and the demons. 11. He is not to seek his own welfare and advantage through the injury of any one else; (12) and he becomes compassionate as regards the creatures of Ohrmazd. 13. In duty and good works he is diligent and striving; (14) and especially in the care of water and fire he is to persevere much. 15. And he is to be without doubt as to this, that, except happiness, the sacred beings do not then give anything whatever, as a modification of it, unto men; and Ahriman and the demons, except misery, do not then give them any happiness.

    16. ‘For the existence of renunciation of sin the special thing is this, that one commits no sin voluntarily; (17) and if, through folly, or weakness and ignorance, a sin occurs, he is then in renunciation of sin before the high-priests and the good. 18. And after that, when he does not commit it, then that sin which is committed by him becomes thus a sweeping (esvarako) from his body; (19) just as the wind which is hasty and mighty, when it comes swift and strong, sweeps so over the plain that it carries away every single blade of grass (giyyakichako-I) and anything which is broken in that place.’

    CHAPTER 53.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘How are the homage and glorifying of the sacred beings to be performed?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Every day three times, standing opposite the sun and Mihr, as they proceed together, (5) and the moon and fire of Warharan, or the fire of fires, in like manner, morning, noon, and evening, homage and glorifying are performed, (6) and one has become grateful. 7. And if a sin, or a deficiency (frotmand-I), has occurred, especially as regards the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences, men and beasts of burden, oxen and sheep, dogs and the dog species, and other creatures and creations of Ohrmazd the lord, (8) one is to become sorrowful, penitent, and in renunciation of sin before the sun and Mihr, the moon and the fire of Ohrmazd; (9) and, for the sake of atonement for the sin, good works are to be practiced as much as is well possible.’

    CHAPTER 54.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when an ignorant man — when they bring advancement to him — considers the learning and advancement of the wise and good mostly so, through greediness, that to teach it to him is difficult?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘For this reason, because the ignorant man considers, in thought, his own ignorance as good as the sage does, in thought, his own knowledge.’

    CHAPTER 55.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is he who is an ill-natured man no friend of the good, nor an untalented man of a talented one?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘For this reason, because he who is an ill-talented man is at all times in fear of the talented, (5) lest “they should trouble us by their skill and talent, and, owing to that circumstance, shame may come upon us before the good and our opponents.”

    6. ‘And the ill-natured are no friends of the good for this reason, because there is a time for their annihilation and destruction by the hands of the good.’

    CHAPTER 56.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore are these mountains and rivers made, which are in the world?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Of these mountains, which are in the world, there are some which are moderators of the wind, and there are some which are warders off; (5) there are some which are the place and vent, the resting-place and support of the rainy cloud; (6) and there are some which are smiters of Ahriman and the demons, and maintainers and vivifiers of the creatures and creation of Ohrmazd, the lord.

    7. ‘And these rivers, which are in the world, the creator Ohrmazd has formed, from the borders of Alburz, for providing the protection and for the vivification of his own creatures and creation.’

    CHAPTER 57.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when the knowledge and sagacity of the spiritual and worldly existences, both united, are connected with thee?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘For this reason, because, from the first, I, who am the innate wisdom, apart from the spiritual and worldly existences, have been with Ohrmazd. 5. And the creator Ohrmazd created (afrito) the angels of the spiritual and worldly creations, and all the other creatures and creations through the power and mightiness, the wisdom and sagacity of innate wisdom; and I produce and he maintains and stimulates them. 6. And at the end of the renovation of the universe it is possible to cause the annihilation and destruction of Ahriman and his miscreations more fully by the power of wisdom; (7) and Soshyant, with Kay Khosraw, and those who cause the resurrection and future existence are able to act more fully, by means of the power and help of wisdom.

    8. ‘The knowledge and sagacity of the worldly existence, the learning and teaching in every profession, and all advancement of temporal beings are through wisdom. 9. The souls of the righteous, in escaping from hell and coming to heaven and the supreme heaven (Garothman), arrive much better by means of the power and protection of wisdom. 10. And it is possible to seek the good living pleasure, good repute, and every happiness of people in the worldly existence, through the power of wisdom.

    11. ‘And the maintenance of the seeds of men and beasts of burden, oxen and sheep, and also every other creature and creation of Ohrmazd, the lord, the seating of them in the womb, and making manifest what is their food in the womb, so that they shall not die from hunger and thirst, and the allotment and maturing of the limbs are effected more fully by means of the durability (dorangarih) and great potency which are in the force of wisdom.

    12. ‘The arrangement of the earth and the mingling of the water in the earth, the growth and increase of plants, color of various kinds, and the scent, taste, and pleasantness of various things are allotted and produced more fully through wisdom. 13. And the arrangement of Alburz around the world, the manifestation of the earth of the seven regions and the sky above the mountain of Alburz, the motion of the sun and moon and twelve constellations, the six times of the season festivals (Gahambars), the five times devoted to the guardian spirits (Frawardigan), the heaven which is in the place of good thoughts, the place of good words, the place of good deeds, and the perfect supreme heaven (Garothman) of all gloriousness, the path of the spirits and worldly existences, and the Chinwad bridge are produced and allotted through the power of wisdom.

    14. ‘The watery-looking cloud’s seizing water from the sea, advancing in the atmosphere, and gradually breaking away, drop by drop, to the earth, and Ohrmazd’s creatures’ thoroughly understanding the nature of heaven and hell, the compassion of Ohrmazd the archangels, and other angels as regards their own creatures, and the devastation and destructiveness of Ahriman and the demons as regards the creatures of Ohrmazd it is possible to comprehend through the more complete power of wisdom. 15. And the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, the sayings and teaching of the spirits, and the demons’ demolishing the worldly body and making it imperceptible by the sight of men are apprehended more fully by means of the most perfect means of wisdom. 16. And even the struggle and warfare of Iran with foreigners (an-airan), and the smiting of Ahriman and the demons it is possible to effect through the power of wisdom.

    17. ‘To occasion the sun’s inspection of the hidden water also, below the earth, it is expedient to convey it for tillage and cultivation, and the advantage, comfort, and enjoyment of men and beasts of burden, oxen and sheep, through the power of wisdom. 18. The thorough understanding of the pain and sickness of men and beasts of burden, oxen, sheep, and other animals, and the bringing of medicine and remedies, health of body and comfort unto them are much more possible to effect by means of the power of wisdom.

    19. ‘And as to every man whose participation in wisdom is much, his share of heaven is then much more. 20. Even as to Vishtasp, Zartosht, Gayomard, and those others whose share of heaven was much the more as on account of the much coming of wisdom unto them. 21. And as to Yim [Jamshed], Faridoon, Kay Us, and those other rulers who obtained splendor (varjo) and mightiness (tagakih) from the sacred beings just as the participation of Vishtasp and other rulers in the religion occurred — and their not attaining to the religion, and also as to the times when they have become ungrateful unto their own lord, it was on account of the little coming of wisdom unto them.

    22. ‘And Ahriman, also, and the demons deceive that man more, and lead him to hell, who is poorer of wisdom and unsteadier in disposition. 23. And it is manifest, that, unto him who is virtuous in disposition, habit, and demeanor, praise is then due, owing to his maintenance of wisdom. 24. For it is declared, that Ahriman shouted to Zartosht thus: “If thou desist from this good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, then I will give thee a thousand years’ dominion of the worldly existence, (25) as was given to the Vadakan monarch Dahak [Zohak].” 26. On account of complete wisdom, the virtuous disposition and demeanor of Zartosht not having hearkened and not being deluded, he did not become deceived and longing through that temptation of the accursed evil one, the wicked. 27. And he spoke to Ahriman (28) thus: “I will shatter and cause to run (dukanam), and will make downcast (niguisar) for thee, the bodies of your demons and fiends, wizards and witches, through the Haoma and sacred twigs, and the good, true religion which the creator Ohrmazd has taught to me.” 29. Ahriman, when those words were heard by him, became confounded and stupefied, and rushed to hell, and remained confounded a long time.

    30. ‘This, too, is declared, that Ohrmazd, when Ahriman, by agreement, had further operated with his (Ohrmazd’s) creatures and creation of every kind, afterwards formed an assembly with the angels and archangels of every kind, and the welfare (avadih) due to his own wisdom was mentioned and recounted by him.

    31. ‘This, too, is declared, that for the nine thousand years of renovation, until the resurrection and future existence, wisdom maintains and stimulates the creatures and creation of every kind.

    32. ‘And this, too, is declared, that, as to him who is an ignorant and bad-tempered man, when he attains even to much eminence, opulence, and authority, even then he is not fit to elevate into that welfare and authority.’

    CHAPTER 58.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Wherefore is it when one turns the ignorance and foolishness of an ignorant king back to knowledge and cleverness, on account of the sovereignty which is his; (3) and, as to a poor man, who is wise, one turns the knowledge and sagacity, which are his, back to foolishness and uselessness, on account of the poverty?’

    4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus: ‘On account of the deceit and violence of the fiend of greediness (6) men utter more words as to the manliness of every one whose wealth and power are more, and recount his deeds and actions more fully; (7) but, in the eyes of the angels and archangels, a poor man who is innocent and wise is better and more precious than a king or opulent man who is ignorant.’

    CHAPTER 59.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘What are the vices of priests? 3. What are the vices of warriors? 4. What are the vices of husbandmen? 5. And what are the vices of artisans?’ 6. The spirit of wisdom answered (7) thus: ‘The vices of priests are heresy, covetousness, negligence, trafficking (sudakih), attention to trifles, and unbelief in the religion.

    8. ‘The vices of warriors are oppression, violence, promise-breaking, unmercifulness (an-avokhshaga-vandih), ostentation (dakhshih), haughtiness, and arrogance.

    9. ‘The vices of husbandmen are ignorance, enviousness, ill-will, and maliciousness.

    10. ‘And the vices of artisans are unbelief, want of thanksgiving, improper muttering of prayers, moroseness, and abusiveness.’

    CHAPTER 60.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Of mankind which are more conversant with good and evil?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘Of mankind he whose sojourn and business are with the bad, and they provide him a name for good repute and goodness, is the man more conversant with good. 5. And he whose sojourn and business are with the good, and they provide him a name for disrepute, is the man more conversant with evil.

    6. ‘Because it is said, (7, 8) that whoever joins with the good brings good with him, and whoever joins with the bad brings evil (9) just like the wind which, when it impinges on stench, is stench, (10) and when it impinges on perfume, is perfume, — (11) it is, therefore, notorious, (12) that he whose business is with the good receives good, (13) and he whose business is with the bad receives evil; (14) but, even then, both are to be considered as an experiment (auzmayishno).’

    CHAPTER 61.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which is the chief of men? Which is the chief of women? 3. Which is the chief of horses? Which is the chief of flying creatures? 4. Which is the chief of oxen? Which is the chief of wild animals? Which is the chief of grains?’

    5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus: ‘The man who is wise, who is steadfast in the religion, who is well-praising, who is true-speaking is chief over his associates.

    7. ‘The woman who is young, who is properly disposed, who is faithful, who is respected, who is good-natured, who enlivens the house, whose modesty and awe are virtuous, a friend of her own father and elders, husband and guardian, handsome and replete with animation is chief over the women who are her own associates.

    8. ‘The ox which is glorious, which is tall-eared, which has a herd of cows is chief over oxen.

    9. ‘The Chiharav is the chief of birds. 10. The horse which is swift is the chief of horses. 11. The hare is the chief of wild animals; and wheat; is the chief of grains.’

    CHAPTER 62.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘In what place stands Kangdez? 3. Where is the enclosure formed by Yim [Jamshed] constructed? 4. In what place lies the body of Sahm? 5. Where is the abode of Srosh? 6. In what place stands the three-legged ass? 7. Where is the Haoma grown, the preparer of the dead, with which they restore the dead and produce the future existence? 8. In which place is Gopaitoshah? 9. With what work is the Kar fish entrusted? 10. Where has the griffin bird a nest (ashiyan)? 11. In what place sits Chinamrosh, and what is his work?’

    12. The spirit of wisdom answered (13) thus: ‘Kangdez is entrusted with the eastern quarter, near to Sataves, (14) on the frontier of Eranvej.

    15. ‘The enclosure formed by Yim [Jamshed] is constructed in Eranvej, below the earth. 16. And every species and seed of all the creatures and creations of Ohrmazd, the lord, whatever is better and more select of man and beast of burden, of cattle and flying creatures is brought thither’. 17. And every forty years one child is born from one woman and one man who are of that place; (18) their life, too, is three hundred years, (19) and their pain and disturbance are little.

    20. ‘The body of Sahm is in the plain of Peshandas, near to Mount Damawand. 21. And on that plain, except corn and the eatable things they sow and reap and live upon, there is not so much as a single other tree, or shrub, or plant; (22) and its golden color is mostly wormwood. 23. And the angels and archangels have appointed 99,999 guardian spirits [fravashis] of the righteous as a protection for the body of Sahm, (24) so that the demons and fiends may not injure it.

    25. ‘The abode of Srosh is mostly in Arezahi, and afterwards also in Sawahi and the whole world.

    26. ‘The three-legged ass sits amid the sea Varkash; (27) and as to water of every kind that rains on dead matter, the menstrual discharge, and other bodily refuse, when it arrives at the three-legged ass, he makes every kind clean and-purified, with watchfulness.

    28. ‘The Haoma, which is the preparer of the dead, is grown in the sea Varkash, in that which is the deepest place; (29) and 99,999 guardian spirits [fravashis] of the righteous are appointed as its protection. 30. The Kar fish, too, ever circles around it, and always keeps the frog and other noxious creatures away from it.

    30. ‘Gopaitoshah is in Eranvej, within the region of Xwaniratha. 32. From foot to mid-body he is an ox, and from mid-body to the top he is a man. 33. And at all times he sits on the sea-shore, (34) and always performs the ceremonial of the sacred beings, and pours holy-water into the sea. 35. On account of which, through the pouring of that holy-water, innumerable noxious creatures in the sea will die. 36. Because, if he does not specially perform that celebration of the ceremonial, and does not pour that holy-water into the sea where those innumerable noxious creatures shall utterly perish — then, whenever the rain shall rain, the noxious creatures have to rain just like rain.

    37. ‘The nest of the griffin bird is on the tree opposed to harm, the many-seeded. 38. Whenever he rises aloft a thousand twigs will shoot out from that tree, (39) and when he alights he breaks off the thousand twigs and bites the seed from them. 40. And the bird Chinamrosh alights likewise in that vicinity; (41) and his work is this, that he collects those seeds which are bitten from the tree of many seeds, which is opposed to harm, and he scatters (parganded) them there where Tishtar seizes the water; (42) so that, while Tishtar shall seize the water, together with those seeds of all kinds, he shall rain them on the world with the rain.’

    CHAPTER 63.

    1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: ‘Which is that good work which is greater and better than all good works, and no trouble (anjinako) whatever is necessary for its performance?’

    3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ‘To be grateful in the world, (5) and to wish happiness for every one. 6. This is greater and better than every good work, and no commotion (angejinako) whatever is necessary for its performance.’

    Peace and prosperity.

    January 26, 2013 at 7:27 pm

  11. An Interesting Biblical Tool
    Posted on 5 April 2013 by E.M.Smith

    I was taking a “final exam” for a Bible degree course. There were things I needed to find, and answer. Trudging through a few hundred (or thousand) pages of Biblical text can be, er, time consuming; if you don’t know just which book some particular “bit” came from. So I was doing some “web searches” on bits of text. To get clues as to: in “which book” to go “Data Diving”?

    Along the way, I ran into this rather useful Biblical Tool. An online Bible, in a few dozen languages, with interlinear and concordance and even parallel Bibles. The Parallel Bible being more useful in English as we have so many translations of it and English has changed so much over the years. Other more stable languages with one historic text have less need for, or availability of, Parallel Bibles. Still, for folks with multiple language skills, it can be fun to compare and contrast some of the many ways the Bible has been translated. Both in English and in other languages.

    The “main site” is here:

    http://bible.cc

    Being “the suspicious sort” (all ex-sysadmins are suspicious of everything. “I’m not paranoid, they are out to get me. I’m the sysadmin!” is the basic reality of that role) I saw “.cc” and was a bit worried. OK, what flaky country is THAT from? (Odd countries often being havens for less than “safe” sites…) Turns out it’s more a marketing / social thing than “some odd country haven”.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.cc

    First off, it’s associated with Australia. So generally a good sign. Second, it’s a commercial operation connected with some larger and reputable companies. Also a good sign.

    .cc is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian territory. It is administered by VeriSign through a subsidiary company eNIC, which promotes it for international registration as “the next .com”; .cc was originally assigned in October 1997 to eNIC Corporation of Seattle WA by the IANA. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an unrecognised country by the UN, that officially belongs to the republic of Cyprus, also uses the .cc domain, along with .nc.tr.

    With the help of SamsDirect Internet, eNIC managed and marketed the top level domain with great success to become the “second largest TLD registry in the United States second only to Verisign” according to Brian Cartmell, founder and CEO of eNIC who testified before the United States Senate in regard to The Governance of the Domain Name System by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers on February 4, 2001. Much of the success of the domain sales came as a direct result of Sams entering into a deal with the largest radio broadcaster in the United States, Clear Channel (CC) Communications, to advertise and promote the domain on several hundred radio stations over a three month period.

    Registration is made directly at second-level.

    The .cc domain is preferred by many cycling clubs as well as churches and Christian organizations as “CC” also happens to be an abbreviation for “Christian Church” or “Catholic Church.” Some open-source/open-hardware projects, e.g. the Arduino project, use a .cc for their home pages, as “CC” is the abbreviation for “Creative Commons”, whose licenses are used in the projects. Canadian Club whiskey have also used .cc domains for marketing purposes.

    So an “eclectic” mix of users, but generally a benign bunch. OK, I’m good with that. Christian Churches using something they like is a nice context. So, back at the site…

    Across the top of the page is a banner of very small flags. Click on one, you get the Bible in that language. (Though some of the other “option” tabs go away as there may be less ‘backing material’, like Parallel Bibles, in any given language). For example, here’s the Bible in Spanish in two forms:

    Spanish: Sagradas Escrituras (1569)

    http://se.bibliaparalela.com/matthew/1.htm

    La Biblia de las Américas (1997)

    http://lbla.bibliaparalela.com/matthew/1.htm

    The astute SysAdmin will have noticed that the TLD Top Level Domain has shifted to .com and a very different site. Yet the frames for the page stay largely the same. One suspects a “distributed cooperative effort” is involved.

    So why bother? Well, lots of reasons. But partly it is just a good source for social insight. Here we can compare directly what folks were reading in 1569 to 1997. How much has it “changed” in 400 years? Does it matter? Is the “message” the same? How different is “Old Spanish” from “New Spanish”? Does one get the same “musty formal” feeling as with King James vs The New Living Translation?

    Next up, there is a small ‘drop down’ menu on the right for “Choose a Translation”. Many of “the usual” English translations are listed. Over on the left side is a set of three drop down menus for Book, Chapter, and Verse. Nice. In the middle is a search box, then four odd “colored round things”. Hover the mouse of them and you find out they are search by topic, a library search, search of Strong’s Greek and Hebrew, and a multilingual search.

    At one time I’d spent a fair price to get just a 4 version Parallel Bible. I’ve occasionally wanted an interlinear, but could not justify the cost (or the shelf space) for something where I can barely pick out a few Greek words and no Hebrew. (The notion being that I’d slowly pick up bits, maybe, and could at least see that “the same word” in English was or was not a different Hebrew or Greek term in the original. Sometimes a couple of original language words map to only one English word, so some “digging” can turn up a tiny bit that was ‘lost in translation’.

    In my experience, almost always of no importance; and largely related to nit-picks like the use of the “Dual” number in Greek that does not exist in English. We say “they” not “They-exactly-2-number-marker”. Usually the context makes it clear there are only 2 talking. Often a decent translator will ‘fill in’ when it is ambiguous without the marker. (So if text had Jesus talking to Matthew AND others in a group, and then said “Then they-2 left together”, the translator might write “Then they both left together” showing that Jesus and Matthew were the “they” and not the whole group.) Yes, I once spent a few months reading various interlinears and translators notes to find out that the bulk of “discrepancies” were directly tied to trivial grammar differences between the languages.

    But still, it is nice to be able to check for yourself. So now I don’t need to find $50 to $100 for more books (rather large and heavy ones at that, not printed on the tissue paper thin stock of small Bibles… and having much more text than a single reading, being in 2 or 3 languages and with added space and pronunciation guides and translation notes and… ) It is very nice to have it available.

    OK, right under that is a large area where I’m presently getting a “file not found” error message. I can’t quite read the name of the file not found, but it doesn’t seem to interfere with the parts I care about. Trying to read the top 1/2 of the characters I think it says something like referencebible.org/mainmenu17.htm

    Below that, the main style resumes again, and on each side there are “chapter” and “book” buttons with arrows, to step forward or backwards by book or chapter.

    Then a line of three letter abbriviations. Each one a particular translation or version of the Bible. (We have a lot of them in English) For example, the KJV King James Version and the ASV American Standard Version:

    http://kingjbible.com/zephaniah/2.htm

    http://asvbible.com/zephaniah/2.htm

    Again the observant SysAdmin will note the changing URLs. Either a distributed effort, or someone has bought a lot of domain names…

    Then there are a bunch of tabs. Most often 9 in the English versions, sometimes less in other languages. Parallel gives a parallel bible of several versions. Lessons, Topics, TSK “Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge” looks to make connections to other books and translations, comments, an Interlinear with Greek / Hebrew, then a Hebrew tab that looks to do more detailed meaning of the Hebrew, not just place the words on the page.

    http://interlinearbible.org/zephaniah/2-1.htm

    http://biblos.com/zephaniah/2-1.htm

    The Lexicon tab goes more into the particular words and meanings and connections via Stong’s along with the word origins. Then that Multi tab is a fun one. It gives the same text in a few dozen languages all on the same page. Lots of fun for use folks who like to look at the structure of other languages ;-)

    http://mlbible.com/zephaniah/2-1.htm

    But in many ways, it is that Parallel tab that I like the most. On one page, a dozen and a half of the most common Bibles.

    http://bible.cc/deuteronomy/16-1.htm

    Far more “parallel” a parallel Bible than I could ever own in physical form. (It would be huge…) So if you wonder if the New International Version has messed up some favored passage from the KJV, or if that ASV you used as a kid is much different from the NIV, well, it’s a quick look. You can also compare the very old versions with the very modern ones. Grieve for what has been lost of the poetry and majesty of older English (and enjoy actually knowing what it said by reading the modern one ;-)

    Built in Concordance and links to other verses on the right with cross references.

    Nice. Just very nice.

    Will I use it much? I don’t know. I’ve mostly “finished that fixation” a couple of years back. Found my answers to a “good enough” degree, and moved on. (The ‘answers’ I found were that the translators did far far better than I ever could, documented where they had concerns, and most of those were rather trivial things, like translating “neutral” gender into he / she since English lacks the 3rd gender, or the Dual number. Hardly earthshaking to have “They-neuter went” vs “They-male went” vs “They went”. Or sometimes “They, John and Mary went” filling in proper names to show why one gender would not work, or “They, John and Matthew went” to make it clear both were male. Such was the stuff and minutia the preoccupied the translators. Still, it is nice to see just how many “versions” say almost exactly the same thing, over many hundreds of years. (And a bit of an annoyance at how some of the modern “Free Translations” have, IMHO, taken a bit too much license… )

    I’ve mostly also answered the question from my “many language quest”. The answer to “What language is most suited to clean ‘tidy mind’ thinking?” is “the one which you learned from birth”. Every language has weird quirks and rough spots. A native speaker bridges them effortlessly with circumlocutions. A non-native struggles. Is there some advantage to one over the others? Yes, likely so, but only if you were born into it. Hungarian has a verb case for “asymptotic”. Approaching but never quite touching the house. Perhaps that is why so many name physicists were Hungarian. (Finnish is a related language with similar properties – and nearly impossible to learn properly for an English speaker past childhood, IMHO ;-) Japanese has structures built into it for all sorts of apologetics and honorifics and ‘saying no while not saying no’ and statements of relative status and so much more “baggage” to the English speaker; while the Japanese feel lost in terms of status awareness in English and feel English a bit brusque.

    So it mostly depends on what you know most intimately. An experience English speaker knows “asymptotic” and how to say “Humble apologies from this wretched one oh Majesty, lunch is here, should it be acceptable.” More words, but still a decent “suck up”. French has 7 past tenses (so you can very precisely order the past) but not so many future tenses. Russian makes do with only one past tense. So “Hitler invaded Russia” in French can clearly mark that as well in the past and more passive, where in Russian one would say “Hitler invaded Russia a long time ago” or “Hitler invaded Russia this morning” (more or less) to make it clear how the timing runs. In the end, it is still which one you know best that will work best for ‘a tidy mind’ thinking.

    What does that have to do with a Bible site? Simple. It lets folks see the same thing for themselves. To see how various languages are not all that different in final effect. To see how the ancient Hebrew carries the same notion as Modern English, or even not so modern English. Yet also to see some of the “lumps”. Where things are lost that ought not be lost. Where “free translations” lose some poetry, or some punch. And where Old English is just to obtuse to mean anything today.

    For me, it’s just an interesting place to “kick around” for folks interested in languages, history, social structure and change, and even just the occasional bits of very old wisdom still found in some of those pages. Along with the sporadic answer to questions like “What makes Maccabees a non-book for some, and included for others? Yes, I’d wandered through the Apocrypha in a couple of versions too. FWIW, some of the books some churches ‘left out’ are just not very important. Maccabees, for example, being largely just some history of those Kings. In? Out? Not much difference, really.

    With this site, it’s like having a much larger Bible library to “kick around in” if the muse strikes me again. Or if some new question comes along to be a “dig here!” du jour. (Like that time I wanted to find out exactly what Ezekiel said and did it really sound like Space Aliens or more like God and Angels? Was it more, or less so, in older versions or in the original language?

    For now, I’m probably pretty much done with such things. But you never know. Sometimes questions come up from the oddest places at the most unexpected times. This will let me scratch those particular itches a whole lot faster.

    So I hope you enjoy that resource.

    (For those of you not interested in the Bible, or about to post anti-religious complaints, please don’t. This is a place to be positive toward fellow travelers in life and accepting that each of us has our own way. I don’t care if you ‘believe’ or not. There is still a lot of good wisdom, interesting stories, and very old history in the collection of books that make up the Bible. Accept it for what it is to you, and let others do the same. Any complaints or insults to the beliefs of others will be snipped. It’s just not polite. I value polite… )

    FWIW, in looking up some of the things I needed to find, I wandered some bits of the Bible I’d not read before. The amount of history in it is fascinating in its own right. So many kings, with so much ambition, do so much war making just to gain personal power and wealth. (Yes, I was reading Kings). Helps, in a way, to see how our present world is not so much different. With so many “Kings” of today, just as then, trying to take what they can by subjugating others. With so many “just plain folks” caught in the middle between Evil and Worse. Some things never change…

    And I think that is a large part of what I find fascinating in the Bible.

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    About E.M.Smith
    A technical managerial sort interested in things from Stonehenge to computer science. My present “hot buttons’ are the mythology of Climate Change and ancient metrology; but things change…
    View all posts by E.M.Smith →
    This entry was posted in History, Human Interest, Religion and tagged bible, Concordance, Interlinear, Multilingual, Parallel. Bookmark the permalink.
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    15 Responses to An Interesting Biblical Tool

    omanuel says:
    5 April 2013 at 10:54 am

    Thanks, E. M Smith, for information on cc and the need to protect primary information from those seeking to subjugate mankind. That is precisely the reason for the present demise of US society and government, as explained here: http://omanuel.wordpress.com/about/#comment-3100

    Driven by a fear and loathing of the destructive nature of humans, leaders united to form the United Nations on 24 Oct 1945, to subjugate and deceive humans to prevent them from destroying life on earth with the forbidden knowledge of the power that vaporized Hiroshima – “neutron repulsion” [1]: http://tinyurl.com/a2ocxtq

    With deep regrets,
    Oliver K. Manuel
    Former NASA Principal
    Investigator for Apollo

    [1] Oliver K. Manuel, “Neutron repulsion,” The Apeiron Journal 19, 123-150 (2012)
    http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V19NO2pdf/V19N2MAN.pdf
    Julian Jones says:
    5 April 2013 at 12:19 pm

    Though we have stopped stoning adulterers around these parts (for the time being at least) it seems there is implicit as well as explicit wisdom in the Bible (and Koran) – the story of Joseph interpreting the Pharoah’s dream – the seven fatted calves & lean, perhaps a rough approximation of the solar signal in rainfall periodicity, wet & dry phases perhaps.
    I spent an amazing (mindboggling) day with a leading man in LENR related water energy – he divulged that all his designs are based on the ‘secret numbers in the Bible’ – he even determined if he would meet me by these …
    jeremyp99 says:
    5 April 2013 at 1:07 pm

    King James man myself, no contest. Nor am I a practising Christian (default maybe). The language of the King James version is magnificent. Whatever the most recent one is, it reflects all that is weak-kneed about modern Western society these days.

    Gimme that old time religion…
    Gail Combs says:
    5 April 2013 at 2:36 pm

    I agree with Jeremy. You do not have to be a Christian to appreciate a book (King James version) that has shaped so much history. Translating it into modern drivel is akin to translating Shakespeare or Chaucer. (Writing middle English was all the rage at my high school thanks to Chaucer and J R R Tolkien)

    As far as I am concerned it is all part of the ‘Dumbing Down’ trend in US schools. Latin used to be required in high school for those headed to university, then you were hard put to even find a high school that taught Latin or even German because it was ‘Too Hard’
    A Brief History of Education in America is an eye opener.
    mkelly says:
    5 April 2013 at 3:20 pm

    Let there be light!

    Let there be strings!

    I like the first one better.
    jeremyp99 says:
    5 April 2013 at 3:27 pm

    Major dumbing down in the UK, tho’ kudos to the Education Minister, Michael Gove, who has taken the bull (in the form of the National Union of Teachers [hard left]) with the intention of actually teaching kids in the formal sense of the word. Happily we don’t seem yet to be going down the horrendous “Common Core” road. Me? I’d teach everyone how to spell, how English grammar works, Latin as the grounds for that, and Classical History so that we know where we come from. Lose your roots and that’s it.

    There’s an interesting debate going on re USA education here….

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com
    diogenes says:
    5 April 2013 at 3:54 pm

    I guess you are aware of James Murray the lexicographer. He used to read Bibles in as many languages as he could and was able to construct banners to welcome visiting dignitaries from just about any country, using phrases from the Bible in their native tongue. And of course, in the bad old 19thc., many 3rd world languageses were first written down as a by-product of the need to produce Bibles.
    Tim Clark says:
    5 April 2013 at 4:09 pm

    OK,
    I’m ready for some philosophy on this beautiful Friday.
    A bit of ethereal truth I’ve been pondering recently.

    From the link below, we all have a “god center” in the brain.
    http://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/god-brain-tumor-surgery-points-brains-religious-center/story?id=9796634

    Slightly different take:
    http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,507605,00.html
    “Reading a statement that you have been asked to compare your own personal beliefs with certainly will activate your own belief system,” Grafman pointed out. He and his colleagues observed brain regions relating to disgust or conflict lighting up in response.

    Then you have the Bible (forgot to include translation)
    Luke 24:45-49
    Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.
    Acts 2:1-5
    When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit.

    Notwithstanding the allegory, the ponder is, in the studies, some folks responded with joy, etc. while others with disgust or conflict.

    Reconcile that data…………Why do some have disgust and others not?
    Tim Clark says:
    5 April 2013 at 4:17 pm

    Opps: My post must have been too long or I forget to add:

    ……….in this context:

    Galatians 5:22-23
    New International Version (NIV)
    22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law.
    P.G.Sharrow says:
    5 April 2013 at 5:10 pm

    Tim Clark says:
    5 April 2013 at 4:09 pm “Notwithstanding the allegory, the ponder is, in the studies, some folks responded with joy, etc. while others with disgust or conflict.”

    While dealing in the field of psychic or spirit I also find that there are those that feel that this is heaven or others that this is hell. It seems to cloud their view of world events and others behavior. People that feel this is heaven are a blessing to be around. Those that feel that this is hell are a real pain to deal with. pg

    @EMSmith; Last night I checked up on the Carbon Church site to see if you had continued. Seems you must have “heard” my concerns ;-) I look forward to your thoughts. pg
    jeremyp99 says:
    5 April 2013 at 5:23 pm

    On the “God centre”. All very well, the scientists may have found where it is and what it does. But they haven’t found WHY it is there, have they?
    E.M.Smith says:
    5 April 2013 at 5:34 pm

    @jeremyp99:

    I noticed you just gave the main site link, so was going to pick up “the” topic link (as, a year or two from now, the main top link may be discussing very different things…) and found as I scrolled back through the articles that there was quite a list of interesting ones… No wonder you gave just the top site link!

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/imitating-the-ussr-in-striving-to-discover-how-the-child-can-become-what-he-not-yet-is/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/viewing-education-as-the-prime-lever-for-international-social-change-community-organizing-everywhere/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/does-community-of-learners-sound-warm-fuzzy-and-harmless-its-not/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/targeting-how-students-see-the-world-so-they-will-feel-an-irresistiable-compulsion-for-change/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/can-an-education-degree-authorize-bait-and-switch-political-insurrections-with-no-recourse/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/students-must-see-themselves-as-active-participants-in-social-change-and-designers-of-social-futures/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/what-happens-when-the-hidden-goal-of-education-is-interrupting-pre-existing-social-stratifications/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/specifying-new-education-economic-and-social-models-as-the-final-act-of-the-civil-rights-movement/

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/well-no-wonder-no-one-listens-to-common-core-complaints-if-it-is-tied-to-federal-revenue-sharing/

    (Particularly interesting to me since, after years of spousal complaints she is leaving the teaching field rather than be forced to teach things that are mandated yet evil / wrong / socialist-left.)

    Then an interesting story about using RICO on one of them…

    http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/misportraying-the-conspiracy-covers-up-the-broader-plans-of-political-and-economic-transformation/

    @diogenes:

    Had not heard the name. Will need to look him up.

    @Tim Clark:

    Well…. maybe it depends on WHAT the individual really holds as their belief system….

    (So a truly moral person might end up satisfied, while a truly evil one might ‘see the light’ a bit and feel down as they scurry back to darkness…)
    Zeke says:
    5 April 2013 at 6:18 pm

    “For me, it’s just an interesting place to “kick around” for folks interested in languages, history, social structure and change, and even just the occasional bits of very old wisdom still found in some of those pages.” ~EM Smith

    This is an extraordinarily important analysis and discussion of languages, and emphasizes the power of individuals to work with original texts. It is not unlike the value in science of publishing the data and making it available along with a paper.

    We are all well aware of the many clever Western scholars and philologists who are more than willing to interpret the ancient texts for every one else. Yet, this is very much like the scientists and experts who arrive at a consensus and select and adjust the data in order to confirm the popular theory. Just as in science, there must be standards for preserving the original data. And as in science, direct experience of the texts is also a greater value than the interpretations by academics and experts. (If we wish for an illustration of the dangers of a priesthood which hides the original texts and proclaims the meanings of them for everyone else to follow, we need look no further than the Papal Bull which prohibited the translation of the scriptures from Latin into any common tongue in c. 1292. Many abuses such as indulgences and relic reverence followed.)

    But there is a safe guard in preserving faithfully the texts in many translations, and in directly experiencing them yourself; and for extra credit in understanding any religion, it is necessary to actually practice it. That is the same as the value of experimentation in science.
    P.G.Sharrow says:
    5 April 2013 at 6:38 pm

    The “God Center” actually exists. If you really “listen” you can hear it speak. But many don’t like what they hear or ignore it totally as inconvenient truth. It is your connection to “That which is” or “The Great Spirit” or God. The Greek ideal of some omnipotent dude on a clouded mountain is just dumb. Time to get rid of this person and grasp the connection of psychics and physics. pg
    Zeke says:
    5 April 2013 at 6:40 pm

    Remember that these scientific principles also apply to the legends and myths and sacred texts around the world: the greatest care must be taken in gathering, preserving, and in archiving them for others to read directly.

    The most enduring scholarly works on sacred texts are those which preserve them faithfully without obscuring them through modern expectations. For example, EW West, the self-taught orientalist, found and published excellent translations of ancient Zoroastrian documents. Again, this is the equivalent of preserving the data in science.

    We also highly value the work of early settlers, such as for example Frank Hamilton Cushing, who recorded North and Meso American myths as they heard them from Indians. Adrienne Mayors wrote that this simple ability by amateurs (often Christians themselves) to ask questions of the natives, and to record what they heard, was somehow lost during the 19th century, when professional anthropologists and academics took over the study of paleontology/geology/anthropology in the United States. It is due to these amateurs that we have many of the oral legends preserved in writing. The accurate preservation and direct experience of myths and legends is a higher value than accepting the conclusions of clever philologists and scientists.

    This will become important, as there are movements which claim to use science to authoritatively interpret “correctly” the meaning of all of these ancient legends and wisdom writings. It is a fatal conceit as positivism, and it is also not a very scientific approach.

    April 5, 2013 at 12:05 pm

  12. And one of my favorite Usefulness principles

    Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

    July 10, 2013 at 1:54 pm

  13. Today is the day of Behram Yazad (Verethraghna): Triumph
    in the month of Adar: Fire

    Here is the Warharan Yasht:
    http://www.avesta.org/ka/yt14sbe.htm

    He is the Angel of Victory, and works with Ashi:
    http://www.persiandna.com/yazatas.htm#Verethraghna

    December 5, 2013 at 6:56 pm

  14. Today is the day of Ram: Joy
    in the month of Adar, Fire.

    The Yasht of the Angel Ram is here:
    http://www.avesta.org/ka/yt15sbe.htm

    December 6, 2013 at 11:28 pm

  15. The 101 Names of Ahura Mazda

    http://avesta.org/ka/101names.htm

    1. yazat (“Worthy of worship.”)
    2. harvasp-tavãn (“Omnipotent.”)
    3. harvasp-âgâh (“Omniscient.”)
    4. harvasp-h’udhâ (“The Lord of all.”)
    5. abadah (“Without beginning.”)
    6. awî-añjâm (“Without end.”)
    7. bûnastah (“The origin of the formation of the world.”)
    8. frâxtañtah (“Broad end of all.”)
    9. jamakh (“Greatest cause.”)
    10. parjahtarah (“More exalted.”)
    11. tum-afayah (“Most innocent.”)
    12. abravañt (“Apart from everyone.”)
    13. parvañdah (“Relation with all.”)
    14. an-ayâfah (“Incomprehensible by anyone.”)
    15. ham-ayâfah (“Comprehensible of all.”)
    16. âdharô (“Most straight, most just.”)
    17. gîrâ (“Holding fast all.”)
    18. acim (“Without reason.”)
    19. cimnâ (“Reason of reasons.”)
    20. safinâ (“Increaser.”)
    21. âwzâ (“Causer of increase. The Lord of purity”)
    22. nâshâ (“Reaching all equally.”)
    23. parvarâ (“Nourisher.”)
    24. âyânah (“Protector of the world.”)
    25. âyaîn-âyânah (“Not of various kinds.”)
    26. an-âyanah (“Without form.”)
    27. xraoshît-tum (“Firmest.”)
    28. mînôtum (“Most invisible.”)
    29. vâsnâ (“Omnipresent.”)
    30. harvastum (“All in all.”)
    31. husipâs (“Worthy of thanks.”)
    32. har-hemît (“All good-natured.”)
    33. harnekfareh (“All good auspicious-glory.”)
    34. beshtarnâ (“Remover of affliction.”)
    35. tarônîs (“The triumphant.”)
    36. anaoshak (“Immortal.”)
    37. farashak (“Fulfiller of wishes.”)
    38. pazohadhad (“Creator of good nature.”)
    39. xavâpar (“Beneficient.”)
    40. awaxshâyâ (“Bestower of Love.”)
    41. awarzâ (“Excessive bringer.”)
    42. â-sitôh (“Undefeated, undistressed.”)
    43. raxôh (“Independent, carefree.”)
    44. varûn (“Protector from evil.”)
    45. a-frîpah (“Undeceivable.”)
    46. awe-frîftah (“Undeceived.”)
    47. adhvaî (“Unparalleled.”)
    48. kãme-rat (“Lord of wishes.”)
    49. framãn-kãm (“Only wish is His command.”)
    50. âyextan (“Without body.”)
    51. â-framôsh (“Unforgetful.”)
    52. hamârnâ (“Taker of accounts.”)
    53. snâyâ (“Recognizable, worth recognition.”)
    54. a-tars (“Fearless.”)
    55. a-bîsh (“Without affliction or torment.”)
    56. a-frâzdum (“Most exalted.”)
    57. hamcûn (“Always uniform.”)
    58. mînô-stîgar (“Creator of the Universe spiritually.”)
    59. a-mînôgar (“Creator of much spirituality.”)
    60. mînô-nahab (“Hidden in Spirits.”)
    61. âdhar-bâtgar (“Air of fire, i.e. transformer into air.”)
    62. âdhar-namgar (“Water of fire, i.e. transformer into water.”)
    63. bât-âdhargar (“Transformer of air into fire.”)
    64. bât-namgar (“Transformer of air into water.”)
    65. bât-gelgar (“Transformer of air into earth.”)
    66. bât-girdtum (“Transformer of air into girad, i.e. gathered.”)
    67. âdhar-kîbarît-tum (“Transformer of fire into jewels.”)
    68. bâtgarjâi (“Doer of bad everywhere.”)
    69. âwtum (“Creator of most excessive water.”)
    70. gel-âdhargar (“Transformer of the earth into fire.”)
    71. gel-vâdhgar (“Transformer of the earth into air.”)
    72. gel-namgar (“Transformer of the earth into water.”)
    73. gargar (“Artisan of artisans.”)
    74. garôgar (“Bestower of wishes.”)
    75. garâgar (“Creator of man”)
    76. garâgargar (“Creator of the entire creation”)
    77. a-garâgar (“Creator of four elements)”
    78. a-garâgargar (“Creator of clusters of the stars”)
    79. a-gûmãn (“Without doubt.”)
    80. a-jamãn (“Without time.”)
    81. a-h’uãn (“Without sleep.”)
    82. âmushthushyâr (“Intelligent.”)
    83. frashûtanâ (“Eternal protector-increaser.”)
    84. padhamãnî (“Maintainer of padman, i.e. the golden mean.”)
    85. pîrôzgar (“Victorious.”)
    86. h’udhâvañd (“Lord-Master of the Universe.”)
    87. ahuramazda (“Lord Omniscient.”)
    88. abarînkuhantavãn (“Of the most exalted rank in the power of maintaining the origin of the creations.”)
    89. abarîn-nô-tavã (“Of the most exalted rank in the power of rendering the creations anew.”)
    90. vaspãn (“Attainer to all the creations.”)
    91. vaspâr (“Bringer of and attainer to all.”)
    92. h’âwar (“Merciful.”)
    93. ahû (“Lord of the world.”)
    94. âwaxsîdâr (“Forgiver.”)
    95. dâdhâr (“The just creator.”)
    96. rayomañd (“Full of rae-lustre-splendour.”)
    97. h’arehmand (“Full of khoreh, i.e. glory.”)
    98. dâwar (“The just judge.”)
    99. kerfagar (“Lord of meritorious deeds.”)
    100. buxtâr (“Redeemer, saviour.”)
    101. frashôgar (“Restorer through increase of the soul.”)

    The Ohrmazd Yasht also includes the names of God.

    Translation here:
    http://avesta.org/ka/yt1_bi.htm

    February 19, 2015 at 7:59 pm

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